Achievement motivation in psychology is focused on theorizing that an individual can improve performance by realizing the need for meeting realistic goals. The psychologist David McClleland studied the role of workplace motivation and its influence on employees. The performance of an individual is based on sense of accomplishment and receiving feedbacks. The concept of achievement-motivation thrive is based on receiving regular performance evaluations. This concept has been used by psychologists for explaining the need of employees and determining how it can be used for enhancing their performance at organizations. Achievement motivation creates self-efficacy and improves quality of working life. Social, cultural and cognitive lenses have transformed the themes of motivation achievement at workplace.
Mahmoudi et al., (2017) explored the impact of motivation achievement on performance of individuals at workplace. The findings depicts that it is an effective tool for improving the quality of work. Employees who manage to determine their achievement motivation level are more likely to work with dedication and give their best to the organization. Social and cultural factors influence the level of individual’s motivation. The social factors that can impact the achievement motivation include social status, economic position and rank in society CITATION Gha17 \l 1033 (Mahmoudi, Rostami, Mahmoudjanloo, & Jahani, 2017). Wang et al., (2019) studied the impact of sociocultural factors on achievement motivation of individuals at workplace. The findings depicts the social and cultural factors have transformed the need for enhancing motivation level of individuals. The need for motivating employees has also changed due to the hiring of people from different cultures. It has become important for the companies to determine the role of culture specific motivations because these impact employee performance and can be improved by adopting right strategy CITATION Mar05 \l 1033 (Ginsberg, 2005). Achievement motivation is a cognitive model that highlights functional relationship between incentives, expectancies, values, situations and actions. Motivation of an individual is influenced by his expectations and desires. Achievement motivation theory and casual attribution theory are effective for understanding the role of cognitive factors. The emphasis of cognitive lens in of identifying how individual chooses his behavior in certain conditions CITATION Hei97 \l 1033 (Heckhausen, 1997). The cultural context of achievement motivation is also examined by the researchers. The studies have determined that the personal values, beliefs and backgrounds of individuals impact their achievement motivation. This indicates that the level of motivation can vary among people belonging to different cultures CITATION Jul02 \l 1033 (Elliott & Bempechat, 2002). Social and cultural factors have significant role in deriving motivation among individuals. People who belong to society where success is more values are more interested to work with high motivation CITATION Mar971 \l 1033 (LMaehr, 1997).
The first lens used by psychologists for determining the role of achievement motivation was social lens. This lens was used for determining how social factors influence achievement motivation of an individual. These factors include desire for attaining social status, opinions and views developed on the basis of society’s perspective. Social factors also emphasize on economic aspects because a person living in society is concerned about earning from a respectable job. The decision of working with high motivation is linked to one’s social rank and status in society. Individuals are thus aspiring at working with high achievement motivation levels for attaining that status CITATION Gha17 \l 1033 (Mahmoudi, Rostami, Mahmoudjanloo, & Jahani, 2017). Cultural values are also equally likely to influence the achievement motivation level of people at work. This indicates that the motivation level will vary among people who belong to different cultures CITATION Mar05 \l 1033 (Ginsberg, 2005)
Due to the changing conditions of the world the role of achievement motivation cannot be thoroughly assessed through one lens. It is more practical to determine examine the concept of achievement motivation through three lenses that include; social, cultural and cognitive. The evaluation of the findings of different psychologists with time indicates that these three lens had significant role in examining the concept of achievement motivation. The cognitive lends depicts that achievement motivation can be learned depending on the situations and encounter of people with different events CITATION Jul02 \l 1033 (Elliott & Bempechat, 2002).
Firms can integrate motivational strategies that are based on three diversity lens; social, cultural and cognitive. By focusing on social factors such as the salary, benefits, ranks and position of the employees, firms can use psychology for improving their motivation levels. This lens is more concerned about studying the personal desires and values of individuals. The role of cultural lens is also crucial in promoting motivation among people. Cultural lens is more focused on studying the cultural values and beliefs of individuals. By addressing cultural needs it is possible to attain high achievement motivation level. Cognitive lens can be used for building self-efficacy and enhancing self-control. This lens is focused on studying the behaviors and attitudes of individuals. The reasons behind those behaviors are also studied. By improving behaviors the motivation level of individuals can be improved.
The need for determining achievement motivation through three diversity lens became more important with the need for addressing the social, cultural and cognitive needs of workers at workplace. The analysis of the three diversity lens depicts that attaining high achievement motivation levels is not possible buy focusing on a single lens. The companies that are aspiring to promote positive achievement must be able to address social, cultural and cognitive demands of people.
BIBLIOGRAPHY LMaehr, M. (1997). Sociocultural origins of achievement motivationOrigenes sociculturales de la motivacion de logroOrigenes socioculturelles de la motivation a la reussite☆ . International Journal of Intercultural Relations Volume 1, Issue 4, Winter 1977, Pages International Journal of Intercultural Relations Volume , 1 (4), International Journal of Intercultural Relations Volume 1, Issue 4, Winter 1977, Pages 81-104 .
Elliott, J. G., & Bempechat, J. (2002). The culture and contexts of achievement motivation . Wiley , 7-26.
Ginsberg, M. B. (2005). Cultural Diversity, Motivation, and Differentiation . Theory Into Practice , 44 (3), 218-225.
Heckhausen, H. (1997). Achievement motivation and its constructs: A cognitive model . Motivation and Emotion , 1 (4), 283–329.
Mahmoudi, G., Rostami, F. H., Mahmoudjanloo, S., & Jahani, M. A. (2017). Relationship of Employees’ Achievement Motivation and Quality of Working Life with Their Self-efficacy at Selected Hospitals with a Multi-group Analysis: Moderating Role of Organizational Ownership. Mater Sociomed. , 29 (4), 237–241.
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