regime de la terreur: Reign or terroranarchists: person who tries to bring anarchySkirmishers: light infantry Mlada Bosna: Young Bosniastate-imposed terror: countries that support terrorismnarco-terrorism: associated with trade in illegal drugsHague Conventions on Warfare: multi-lateral treaties that addressed the conduct of warguerrilla warfare: irregular warfare with small number of combatantsinsurgency: active revolt or uprsisngethnonationalist terrorism: terrorism based on ethnicities and having separatist tendenciescolonialism: occupation of another territory and governing it directly or indirectlyAtlantic Charter (pg. 46-47) Joint declaration by Roosevelt and Churchill
Menachem Begin: Israeli politician
Irgun militia: Zionist militants
United Nations Special committee on Palestine (UNSCOP): A committee formed on UK’s request to settle Palestine issue
Global Terrorism Database (GTD): An open source database that has the information related to terrorist events that happened around the world within 1970 – 2017.
EOKA: EOKA is an organization that battled a campaign to end the British rule within Cyprus. The full form of EOKA is Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston.
FLN (French Front de Libération Nationale)
PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization)
skyjacking (Aircraft hijacking)
Black September (Its a conflict fought in Jordan)
ASALA (Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia)
JCAG (Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide)
left-wing international terrorism: terrorism meant to overthrow capitalist or conservative governments thug (thugee): a violent person Hezbollah: A Palestinian group aimed at forming Palestine as an independent country Sikh militants: Militants of Sikh religious organizations American Christian patriot movement: an extremist and radical movement of American political commentators Ruby Ridge and Waco: a takeover of a government facility by protestorsAum Shinrikyo: Japanese doomsday cult
1) Terrorism evolved from an anarchist, anti-colonial wave in the late 18th century to a political and religious movement. The French Revolution saw acts of terrorism and then it continued till the start of the 20th century when regular attacks took place in modern day Israel and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Gavrilo Princip assassinated the Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 and Aum Shinrikyo bombed Japan’s subway, killing dozens.
The term terrorism began to surface in late 18th century France and the criterion of being termed terrorist was very clear as anyone who fought against the interests of the empire or state was labelled terrorist. Towards the beginning of the 21st century however, the term has been highly politicized. The distinction between terrorist and freedom fighter is less obvious now, especially as a result of the Almaty Declaration, reaffirming the right of self-determination for all peoples.
2) Ethno-nationalist or separatist is a type of terrorism signified by Audrey Cronin. According to Cronin, these type of terrorists take up arms due to their ethnicities, languages and/or geographical area. Their main goal is to create a separate identity for themselves by creating a new nation in which they will be the overwhelming majority.
Palestinian Liberation Organization based in Jordan at first, then Lebanon, carried out attacks against Israel. PLO’s aim is to liberate Palestine from Israeli occupation, keeping in line with resolutions of Security Council. Al-Qaeda is another terrorist organization that attacked World trade Center by ramming hijacked passenger airplanes into the building. The Islamic Jihad Organization attacked a US embassy in Lebanon with the demand that all Americans leave Lebanon for good.
3) Data collection was difficult because there was no uniform and credible organization that was recognized by most countries; this made the issue of terrorism and its associated data highly controversial. The data by US would not be accepted by some other countries, making consensus difficult.
The Global Terrorism Database is a database that is open source and contains information of more than 180,000 terrorist attacks. It assigns points for the amount of damage as well as the lives lost or injuries sustained.
4) The birth of Palestinian resistance movement can be traced back to the Balfour Declaration in which the British ensured that a Jewish state would be created in Palestine. This worried the Palestinians as they feared that they would be driven from their own lands if influx of Jews starts from Europe. Their fears turned to reality as 750,000 Palestinians were forced to flee when Israel was officially created in 1948. East Timor learned from the Palestinian tactics and started mass protests and used media to portray their anguish to the world.
The Palestinian resistance movement is especially pertinent in world history as it is the longest ongoing freedom struggle in the world. They have been forced out of their own homes and their lands have been taken away by Israelis – all of which has been repeatedly condemned by United Nations General Assembly.
5) Religious terrorism is inspired by misplaced religious emotions and perceived obligations that are divine. The element of providence in religious terrorism makes it the most dangerous type of terrorism as terrorists are perceived as heroes in some circles.
Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) is the main Islamic terrorist organization working in the South Asian country. They carried out the most inhumane act of terrorism in 2014 when they attacked a school, leaving more than 150 people dead. The Bosnian genocide of 8000 Serbian Muslim men was motivated in part by religious hatred by Christians towards members of the Islamic faith. Jewish right-wing attacks on Churches are an example of Jewish terrorism as they continue to grow in number.
6) Democracy began as a result of oppression and its guiding principle was the right of liberty of every individual, regardless of race, sex, caste or creed. In the 21st century, democracy is more popular than ever in the world but America is facing increasing threats to its own democracy. This is primarily because of right-wing white nationalist rhetoric fueled by a surge in political victories, such as that of Donald Trump, who refused to condemn white nationalists when their protest resulted in the death of a young girl in Charlottesville.
The idea of democracy in America is changing as more people now believe that it is a concept that is limited to a certain group only. They call for a ‘white only’ America despite the fact that democracy is supposed to provide equal treatment and opportunity to every citizen, regardless of race or religion. The government should set precedents by hiring a diverse set of people in the administration and crack down on hate speech.
7) Charles Montesquieu was a French philosopher, judge and political scientist whose ideas led to the creation of the modern political system in the world. He was against the influence and power of church in matters of statehood. He proposed the theory of separation of powers in which he called for the complete detachment of religion from affairs of the state.
Montesquieu viewed religion’s use in politics as a tool to oppress people and subjugate them into obedience through the false notion of providence. He was also against the use of judicial powers by the government as it was essentially a death sentence for anyone who opposed the state. Separation of Powers calls for three pillars of a state: Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.
8) Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher and famous writer whose works inspired the French Revolution and guided it even after his death. Rousseau posited that in a social contract, all citizens give up an equal number of rights and therefore are subject to the same laws. This brings equality in society and is a cornerstone of democracy.
Rousseau opposed Hobbes’ view of ‘state of nature’ and opined that humans are not inherently evil rather they go through stages of development which are natural and should not tampered with. According to Rousseau, a direct democracy in a small state is the best type of government.
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