Explain The Institutional Advantages Of Territorial Rulers.
Sovereign State / Sovereign State System
A sovereign state is a modern nation form with three elements of sovereignty, territory, and people. Along with the demolition of the feudal society, it was formed in the Western European countries such as England, France in the 16th century. Originally the king had taken the form of absolute monarchy with sovereignty, but after the civil revolution it shifted to the constitutional monarchy or republican, democratic politics by the parliament system will be carried out. In the process, the border was formed, which is the area surrounded by artificial borders with the concept of the people supporting the nation by tax and others.
Demolition of feudal state
As a feudal state established on the feudal society of medieval Europe, as the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the Kingdom of France, the emperor and the king are only one of feudal lords, they dominate the nation uniformly The borders were not clear, they were intricately intertwined (to remember the relationship between Britain and France at the time of the centennial war). The feudal lords (nobility) fell down as the feudal society dismantled with the improvement of the productivity of Europe and the change of production relations, and became decisive, especially by the 100-year war and the British rose war.
Formation of a sovereign state
In the 16th century, the Italian war (1494-1559 in the broad sense) came to recognize the needs of the territorial concepts and the regular army, especially the formation of a unified state under the royal right in France advanced. Also in this war the use of firearms (guns) is generalized, the military revolution that the cavalry tactics change into collective tactics by infantry with guns advances, the fall of the feudal lords becomes clear, each country possesses a former army. In the UK also the national integration progressed under the Tudor morning in the 16th century. Thus, each country has exclusively territories separated by borders, unified state power rule, governments and the stationary army, guarantee domestic economic activity and the state collects systematic taxes. A country with a mechanism called a sovereign state. Also, since the 16th century is an era of religious reform and religion was a major element of national integration, the conflict between sovereign states at this time in Europe will have aspects of Catholic and Protestant religious warfare.
Establishment of national consciousness
Also, in the medieval feudal state, the lordship is bound by the master-slave relationship, the farmers are bound by the manor, there is little awareness of attribution to the state, but when the feudal society collapses and the sovereign nation is formed it “Citizen" will become conscious as an element. The development of the economy will also produce a wide range of markets beyond the manor and city limits, closed groups like guilds are gradually disintegrated, citizens who develop free economic activities, citizens supporting the unified state People with a consciousness that there is an existence will become the center of society. In this case as well, religious unity became an important element of public consciousness.
The first form of a sovereign state is absolute monarchy
However, at this stage national sovereignty is held by the king and nobility, the people are not yet sovereign. The sovereign states of the 16th - 18th century stage had a political form of "absolute monarchy" where the sovereign is owned by the king and the power concentrates on the king (it is justified by the theory of kingship ). In addition, the economic activity also adopted a mercantilism policy in which the king monopolized profits by tying with the privileged merchant , free commercial activity and trade were not done. It is now pointed out that the existence of an association (intermediate group) is important as a social foundation that supports the absolute national rule of the king, which is the earliest form of a sovereign state.
To form a national state accompanying the citizen revolution
When industrial capitalists (bourgeoisie) are formed with the industrial revolution starting in the UK, they cause a civil revolution in search of freedom of economic activity and political equality. By doing so, the absolute principle killing has been overthrown, it is conscious that the people of national sovereignty are in the citizens, and it will form a "national state". It can be said that the movement that aims to form the "nation state" is nationalism (nationalism), and the stage where the concept of "citizen" is established is the completion of the "modern state".
Sovereign state system
A way of international relations between sovereign states established in Europe in the 16th - 17th century is called the sovereign state system. It became the prototype of diplomatic relations and international organizations between modern nations. In Europe from the 16th to the 17th century, with administrative organizations and regular army, centered on the tax collecting mechanism, the monarchs (king) who is a sovereign in a clear boundary area are unitarily (in a centralized system) The " sovereign state " that governs and the international relations between those nations are formed. .
The manner of diplomacy among contemporary nations, the way to exchange diplomats with ambassadors or ministers as ambassadors and make them resident is starting in the 15th century Italian Republic of Venice. Also, in order to resolve international disputes, international conferences of modern meaning that delegates from various countries hold international conferences, conclude treaties, and oblige countries to observe compliance, The Westphalia Conference and its achievements, the 1648 Treaty of the Westphalia, are considered the first.
The establishment of sovereign state system
The conflict for territorial acquisition such as the Italian war, competition for acquiring overseas territory, religious conflict, etc. were intertwined in a complex manner, and Britain, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal etc. formed the sovereign state system. Germany lags the unification as a whole, Prussia and Austria are separated after the thirty year war. It is said that the European sovereign state system was established by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the thirty year war. Italy lags the most unified, continues to receive interference with the control of foreign forces, and the formation of sovereign states will eventually be in the middle of the 18th century. Russia in the east also formed a sovereign state in the 17th century.
The sovereign state system of the modern world was formed in the course of the Italian war, the following sentence is explained in an easy-to-understand manner. In 1494 (the Italian war began), the French king's army opened the early modern "Pandora's Box". The Italian Peninsula became an arena of international conflict, and the result of the Renaissance became the northern gradually. That is not all. During the Italian war, Milan and Genoa, Venice and the Ottoman Empire, and Spain, Netherlands, France, England and the Emperor, and the Papacy have both offered diplomatic missions in the midst of battle and diplomacy during the Italian war, ensuring their safety, the practice of exchanging documents has become established. In parallel with the collapse of the Christian community through religious reform, a unique world order that sets rules and repeats war and negotiation, between modern states that claim sovereignty in certain areas, while differences in size, strength, Appears. The researcher will call it "the sovereign state system" or "nationality family". For this to become established as an international law, it is necessary to wait for a law scholar like Gentili and Grotius, and the Westphalia Convention, but it is meaningful that the rule of international relations is established for the first time in human history. For example, a rule that is essentially different from 'Huajian order' and 'tsunami relation' in East Asia was established.
Sovereign national system and international law
Grotius's “Law of War and Peace “announced as the miserable damage of the Thirty Years War was expanded advocated that international law is necessary to alleviate the misery of war. By the establishment of the Westphalia Peace Treaty after the war, the modern sovereign state has created international laws that govern the relationship between states, as the upper powers of the Roman Pope and the Holy Roman Empire in medieval Europe have disappeared.
However, the American Revolution in the latter half of the 18th century, the French Revolution brings victory of the citizen who is the emerging class against absolute monarchy, changes the view of war, and the new rules of war will be formed. In the case of land battle war is not a mercenary but a military, it is done by the national army, in the case of a naval battle it is supposed to be done by a warship ship, not a private pleasure boat (pirate), a certain restraint is made by a belligerent provision and inhuman treatment of prisoners of war It will be recognized that it should be added.
Absolute monarchy / absolutism
The sovereign state: The political system of the state where the power of the state concentrated on the monarch (king) during the period of national formation, the prince exercised absolute power. The political system in which a monarch in a sovereign state formed in the 16th - 18th century has absolute dominion power is called "absolute monarchy absolutism" (or absolutism system). The emergence of absolute monarchy is seen in Western Europe during the transition period from feudal society to modern society and can be regarded as a system which is knocked down by the citizen revolution of the 18th century. The foundation of the King's absolute power is that the feudal lords (aristocrats, upper clerics) depend on the king to recognize tax exemption privileges and others who have become bureaucrats and military personnel supporting the power of the kingdom On the one hand, the Birthay citizen (bourgeoisie) was also a person who had guaranteed monopoly rights etc. depending on the king power still. Supported by these superior status, the political form of the sovereign state during the formation of a sovereign state where the king directly governs "people" in a centralized system with the bureaucratic organization and the permanent military system was absolute monarchy.
As a typical absolute monarchy, there are Portuguese and Spain early in the 15th century to the 16th century, England in the Tudor morning of the 16th and 17th centuries, France of the Bourbon Morning of the 17th and 18th centuries, and so on. Formation of the absolute monarchy of Germany and Russia was delayed in the 18th century, and was not established in Italy. Under the absolute monarchy, bureaucracy and the creation of regular army advanced, and economic policy of mercantilism was taken to obtain financial resources to maintain them. Moreover, thought that the theory that absolute monarchy is theory is the theory of the theory of kingship. It was developed in England and France.
The image of the conventional legendary absolute monarchy was as follows. "In the era of French" Absolute monarchy ", especially during the heyday of Louis XIV, which is said to be the heyday, there is a huge bureaucracy group where the king holds absolute power in his hands and remains his own clothing, It was considered to have exercised powerful control up to the corners of the kingdom by the mighty stationary army which was declared.
Association / intermediate group / corporate state
In the 16th - 18th century Europe, given a certain privilege from the king, it is an organization that has been recognized as independence, such as a guild like associate union, a community of cities and villages. Absolute monarchy ruled the people through the association. In the absolute monarchy of Europe (absolutism), among other things, in the so-called absolute monarchy period of the Louis XIV of France from the 17th to the 18th century, while supporting the kingship, at the same time, the various social groups with the power to restrict the kingship as an association, The state governed by the royalty underpinned by it is taken as an association state. As a state form that appears in the transition period from the middle Ages to the modern period, which was proposed instead of the conventional theory of absolutism, the view that the system is overthrown by the citizen revolution can be regarded as "modern times" has Treaty of Cateau Cambresis. In 1559, the peace treaty of Italian war. Due to the prolongation of the war, both the Hapsburg and the Valois families are in the background.
The final peace treaty of Italian war concluded in 1559. Cateau Cambresis is the name of the current place in France. The prolongation of the Italian war has brought financial difficulties in both the Habsburgs (Spain) and France, and in particular the Habsburg family has become increasingly difficult to repay due to the huge debts from the Huggers. In response to such circumstances, Henry II of France (husband of Catherine de Medici’s) agreed with the Spanish Felipe II and the King of England Elizabeth I to agree on the peace of the Italian war, the Cateau Cambresis treaty was concluded. In this treaty France abandoned its interest in Italy, Savoie and Piedmont also gave the public Savoy as a marriage to her older sister Marguerite. However, the possession of France was recognized for curry, sang kantan etc. In addition, as a proof of friendship between France and Spain, it was decided to make the daughter of Henry II (that is, the daughter of Catherine de Medicis) the wife of Felipe II. In the Cateau Cambresis treaty, the Italian war in a broad sense has been concluded, but there were circumstances of the former religious forces that had to cope with the increase of the Shogunist forces in the background.
Gross, Leo. "The peace of Westphalia, 1648–1948." American Journal of International Law 42.1 (1948): 20-41.
Krasner, Stephen D. "Sovereignty." Foreign Policy (2001): 20-29.
Knecht, Robert Jean. The French civil wars, 1562-1598. Routledge, 2014.
Major, J. Russell. From Renaissance Monarchy to Absolute Monarchy: French Kings, Nobles, and Estates. JHU Press, 1997.
Mallett, Michael Edward, and Christine Shaw. The Italian Wars 1494-1559: War, State and Society in Early Modern Europe. Routledge, 2014.
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