Crime mapping has become an essential aspects of criminology and crime analysis. The technique of crime mapping is not new but it dates back to 1900s. Pin maps have been developed for studying various crimes that are represented by different colors. It gives clear idea of the square feet area including the measurements of all dimensions. Cartography and crime mapping are relevant techniques that have been used by the crime investigation departments of different countries. Maps are used for identifying the fields of navigations. The criminologists of 1830s adopted the technique of crime mapping for solving mysteries more efficiently. Cartography and geographic have origins in England and France as these countries had the most advance crime investigation institutes. With time the departments started including additional factors that could help in controlling crimes. social ecology was introduced for determining the factors that helped the crime investigators in studying the factors that encourage offenders towards crime.
The role of sociologists became prominent since the nineteenth century as they started uncovering the reasons behind criminal behaviors. With the emergence of technology the use of computerized crime mapping was introduced in 1960s. Early computer crime mapping used printers and point symbols that added to the efficiency of the investigators. GIS style crime mapping was even a newer technique that emerged in 1980. With the integration of technology the work efficiency of the crime institutes improved. Printers were enhanced that also allowed officers to save time and perform work on time. Another prominent technological advancement include data visualization that include graphical representation of the crime scenes and factors that leads to fast judgments. Graphics broadened the perspectives of the officers and allowed them to cover all aspects that leads to the identification of right criminal. Bar chars and diagrams were used more frequently for understanding the reasons and nature of crime.
Mapping involve a scientific activity that require from officers to develop hypothesis for solving the crime mystery. Data sets are sued for making more accurate and right decisions. Statistical information is also used that help the officers in presenting facts in appropriate manner. However the efficient use of the mapping technique depends on officers knowledge and skills. It sis crucial to use symbols, signs and indications in right manner that eliminate possibilities of error in judgments.
It is also proved that maps are cost effective as they allow crime investigation department to save cost. More abstractions are possible that makes analysis simpler. Mapping has also improved competency of the officers for measuring time and space of the crimes. It is possible to estimate the events and geographical space of their occurrence. Maps can also be used for estimating the time accurately including the time of its occurrence. Map projection is another important feature of crime mapping that helps in solving crime problem more appropriately. The chances of committing errors or neglecting the minor clues is also removed in this method CITATION Jan99 \l 1033 (Reno, Marcus, Robinson, & Brennan, 1999).
Efficient coordinating systems are integrated by the crime investigation agencies that eliminates the possibilities of delays in information sharing or misinterpretation. Installation of the UMT systems have further increased accuracy and efficiency in performance. Location, distance, direction can easily be identified through these advanced tracking systems. Small and large scale maps are selected for exploring the small and large areas. Data collection has become fast that leads to solving of crimes on time. There are different categories of maps such as qualitative and quantitative used according to the nature of crime.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Reno, J., Marcus, D., Robinson, L., & Brennan, N. (1999). Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice. National Institute of Justice.
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