Violence In Colombia
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Violence in Colombia
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Colombia has witnessed the evolution of society which is highly segregated similar to other Latin American states. Since the past century, violence and crime have wreaked havoc and impeded the nation from sustaining a harmonic state. In the 1960s, the Colombian conflict took place which asymmetric war between paramilitary groups, Colombian governments, left-wing guerrillas and several crime syndicates. Each of these groups waged war to dominate and announce their hegemony in the Colombian territory. However, several other menaces surfaced as a manifestation of the widespread violence in Colombia as kidnapping, illegal drug trade, gender-based violence, murders and corruption. Various elements of arms groups have also been involved in the drug trade. Colombia assumes an instrumental role throughout the world in the paradigm of illegal trade and the grave consequences are faced by the citizens. The government and policy makers advanced to strive and eradicate the perils of violence in the past yet the circumstances remained unsorted and detrimental. The Border for Prosperity was a critical plan initiated in 2011, to combat violence by enhancing economic and social development. Primarily, there exist a wide range of issues causing the pervasive violence in Colombia which are essential to be discussed thoroughly.
As per a study published by Colombias National Centre for Historical Memory, more than 220,000 people died in the conflicts between 1958 and 2013. The majority of the killed people were innocent citizens. These murders were caused by the perilous drug trade, poverty, thefts and pertinent crimes in Colombian society. Besides, these murders manifested to make Colombia the second largest population in the world facing the predicament of internally displaced persons (IDPs). Approximately 175 of the population has suffered the radical ramifications of the war. Essentially, one out of three of the 7.7 million registered victims of the conflict are children and more than 9,000 children have disappeared since 1985.
One of the significant progress made by the government was promulgating a peace deal with the FARC and National Liberation Army (ELN) I 2016. Ceasefire and ending the conflict were the primary manifestations of the deal but the murder and violence have not been curbed in true letter and spirits. The regional crime has remained evident in the territories of Bogota, Cali and Medellin.
Illegal Drug Trade
In Colombia, there existed four crucial drug trafficking cartels that ultimately caused chaos and had influence over a vast range of territory and cultural aspects. The Colombians remained renowned across the world for being the lords of the drugs trade involving Marijuana and cocaine. The latter half of the 19th century witnessed the rise and fall of major kingpins where the initial boom occurred with Marijuana in the 1960s followed by Cocaine. Half of the cocaine consumed in the world is produced generated from Colombia. In 2016, 17 million people consumed illicit drugs in the world with hundreds of 1,400 tons of cocaine originating from the Andean region as per a report of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. The remote parts of the state are used to grow cocaine as the state lacks the control and authority there. Consequently, a sufficient amount of time is at the disposal of the traffickers. The stakeholders are striving to curb the illegal production and trade of cocaine by curbing its cultivation and eradicating the plants. However, Colombia witnessed a record production of cocaine in 2017 as 1,379 tons. The farmers can re-harvest coca immediately after the current harvest has been destructed which provides the justification of robust growth despite the operations. The cocaine export is authorized by the transnational crime corporations which do business with the criminal organizations, especially Mexican cartels.
However, the extent of the drug violence lowered in the previous decade as Colombia transitioned from being the most violent place to have homicides rate which was inferior to El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. It will be worthy to highlight a large proportion of violence and corruption in Colombia has been shaped by the influence of drugs, cartels, rivalries and state intervention. Once the cocoa is processed to cocaine, the local drug traffickers, nationally operating groups and guerrillas move it either one of the states borders or two coastlines. Drugs are hidden in the cars or trucks if transported via land and moved in boast via dense forests. Despite the widespread presence of cocaine, approximately 150 tons of cocaine seized per year as per reports of Colombias Defense Ministry.
Kidnapping was the common practice for criminals and guerrillas to extort people and add to the violence in Colombia. Since before the recent memory, criminals have been kidnapping citizens to fulfill the extortion purposes. It spiked in the 1980s when the radical groups as ELN, FARC, EPL, M-19 and ERP began utilizing the ransom payments to manifest their revolt against the authorities. The largest organization FARC kidnapped to meet several purposes by holding hostages in jungle camps for ransom, economic and political elites were kidnapped to cultivate political leverage and soldiers suffered from the implications of the prisoners of war. In the contemporary era, kidnapping is still spreading violence but it is at the extent similar to where it was before guerrillas took over. More than 174 citizens were kidnapped in 2018 which is very less in comparison to the 3,600 victims of kidnaping recorded in 2000 in the era of armed conflict. In the era of war, the majority of kidnapping victims were contained in densely populated regions as Antioquia and Bogota but the practice was prominent in the remote territories as Casanare, Guaviare and Arauca. As per the prosecution, FARC received more than 2 billion via ransom payments over the decade. Generated revenue accounted for the expansion of the workforce in the 1990s. In 2012, the FARC proclaimed to put an end to the economic retention policy and called off taking hostages for financial purposes. The justice system of Colombia collapsed in front of the sheer extent of war crimes committed by the actors of the war.
At all levels of governments, corruption has surfaced as the major peril. A wide range of institutions in Colombia has become the victim of corruption listed as follows public service, police, judiciary, land administration, customs administration, tax administration, natural resources, public procurement, civil society and legislation. More than a third of the citizens deem the magistrates and judges corrupt. The political stakeholders have been alleged for harnessing the judiciary for political victimization and leverage. Between 2016 and 2018, approximately 2300 police officers were dismissed for charges of corruption. Similar pattern is followed in other departments which fuel the violence in Colombia. For instance, the registration of policy in Colombia requires seven steps that are in line with the regional average however, it takes fourth of time needed anywhere else in the region. Besides, the import and export procedures are replete with the instances of bribe and corruption. The El Dorado airport located in Bogota has been the potential part of several corruption allegations. In 2018, the authorities reported a plan carrying 500 kilograms of cocaine was permitted to depart without any hurdles or checks by the customs administration. Such grave are the manifestations of the widespread corruption in all the branches of government and institutions.
As per experts and political researchers, violence in Colombia lies at the very heart of prevalent corruption in the government. However, the political structure witnesses a paradigm shift after peace agreements with the armed groups were signed. The timeline reflects the previous governments were at the mercy of the gangster organizations, cartels and murderers.
The gender-based violence is also widespread amid the violent state of affairs in Colombia. The documents and reports reflect the manner domestic violence has not translated into effective healthcare, justice and protection for the women, especially for the displaced girls and women. Approximately more than half of the states 4 million displaced comprise the female. A researcher of Human Rights Watch reported that the hardships of displacement of several women and girls are supplemented by the trauma of domestic violence and rape. Despite the vigorous policies and laws enacted in recent years, it remains a challenging task to make the women accomplish the rights and medical attention which they deserve. The state has high reported instances of domestic violence and rape generally and the surveys have further reflected higher rates among the displaced. As per a government survey reported in 2011, approximately 48 of the displaced women suffered domestic violence and 9 were raped by someone else than partners. However, the provision of official statistics on the gender-based violence is limited yet there exist widespread instances which are an explicit illustration of the violence perpetrated against the women. Irrefutably, gender-based violence fuels the violence and in essence it is a manifestation of the rampant violence existing in Colombia for several decades.
ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL uncited,omitted,custom CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Avenue, Human Rights Watch 350 Fifth, 34th Floor New York, and NY 10118-3299 USA t 1.212.290.4700. Colombia Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women. Human Rights Watch, November 14, 2012. https//www.hrw.org/news/2012/11/14/colombia-obstacles-care-abused-displaced-women.
Colombia 2019 Crime Safety Report. Accessed May 15, 2019. https//www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspxcid25817.
Drugs Permeate All Levels of Society in Colombia. DC. Accessed May 15, 2019. https//www.dandc.eu/en/article/drugs-permeate-all-levels-society-colombia.
Roots of Violence in Colombia. Accessed May 15, 2019. https//revista.drclas.harvard.edu/book/roots-violence-colombia.
ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDjYlA26c3,propertiesformattedCitationuc0u8220Colombia 2019 Crime Safety Report,uc0u8221 accessed May 15, 2019, https//www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspxcid25817.,plainCitationColombia 2019 Crime Safety Report, accessed May 15, 2019, https//www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspxcid25817.,noteIndex1,citationItemsid344,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/RR33M4CA,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/RR33M4CA,itemDataid344,typewebpage,titleColombia 2019 Crime Safety Report,URLhttps//www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspxcid25817,accesseddate-parts2019,5,15,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json Colombia 2019 Crime Safety Report, accessed May 15, 2019, https//www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspxcid25817.
ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDQXupReG7,propertiesformattedCitationiRoots of Violence in Colombia, accessed May 15, 2019, https//revista.drclas.harvard.edu/book/roots-violence-colombia.,plainCitationRoots of Violence in Colombia, accessed May 15, 2019, https//revista.drclas.harvard.edu/book/roots-violence-colombia.,noteIndex2,citationItemsid346,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/FTW2YIL8,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/FTW2YIL8,itemDataid346,typebook,titleRoots of Violence in Colombia,sourcerevista.drclas.harvard.edu,abstractArmed Actors and Beyond ByJohn H. Coatsworth Colombia has suffered from high levels of armed strife for most of its history. The current strife it is experiencing is not unusual either in length or death toll.,URLhttps//revista.drclas.harvard.edu/book/roots-violence-colombia,languageen,accesseddate-parts2019,5,15,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json Roots of Violence in Colombia, accessed May 15, 2019, https//revista.drclas.harvard.edu/book/roots-violence-colombia.
ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDSdbkOSX3,propertiesformattedCitationuc0u8220Drugs Permeate All Levels of Society in Colombia,uc0u8221 DC, accessed May 15, 2019, https//www.dandc.eu/en/article/drugs-permeate-all-levels-society-colombia.,plainCitationDrugs Permeate All Levels of Society in Colombia, DC, accessed May 15, 2019, https//www.dandc.eu/en/article/drugs-permeate-all-levels-society-colombia.,noteIndex3,citationItemsid350,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/VZYDCDFU,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/VZYDCDFU,itemDataid350,typewebpage,titleDrugs permeate all levels of society in Colombia,container-titleDC,abstractThe war on drugs appears to have failed in Colombia. Despite billions being spent on it, the drug trade is flourishing. Both domestic consumption and the amount of land used for coca cultivation are increasing. Julian Quintero and his civil-society organisation Accin Tcnica Social (ATS) are in favour of an alternative drugs policy one that educates users rather than criminalising them.,URLhttps//www.dandc.eu/en/article/drugs-permeate-all-levels-society-colombia,languageen,accesseddate-parts2019,5,15,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json Drugs Permeate All Levels of Society in Colombia, DC, accessed May 15, 2019, https//www.dandc.eu/en/article/drugs-permeate-all-levels-society-colombia.
ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationID2wyf2Acy,propertiesformattedCitationHuman Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor New York, and NY 10118-3299 USA t 1.212.290.4700, uc0u8220Colombia Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women,uc0u8221 Human Rights Watch, November 14, 2012, https//www.hrw.org/news/2012/11/14/colombia-obstacles-care-abused-displaced-women.,plainCitationHuman Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor New York, and NY 10118-3299 USA t 1.212.290.4700, Colombia Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women, Human Rights Watch, November 14, 2012, https//www.hrw.org/news/2012/11/14/colombia-obstacles-care-abused-displaced-women.,noteIndex3,citationItemsid348,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/RX59T7AM,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/yvjivw9i/items/RX59T7AM,itemDataid348,typewebpage,titleColombia Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women,container-titleHuman Rights Watch,URLhttps//www.hrw.org/news/2012/11/14/colombia-obstacles-care-abused-displaced-women,title-shortColombia,languageen,authorfamilyAvenue,givenHuman Rights Watch 350 Fifth,familyYork,given34th Floor New,family1.212.290.4700,givenNY 10118-3299 USA ,non-dropping-particlet,issueddate-parts2012,11,14,accesseddate-parts2019,5,15,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json Human Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor New York, and NY 10118-3299 USA t 1.212.290.4700, Colombia Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women, Human Rights Watch, November 14, 2012, https//www.hrw.org/news/2012/11/14/colombia-obstacles-care-abused-displaced-women.
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