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Gottlieb Mittelberger, The passage of indentured servants 1750
In the period from the 17th century to the third decade of the 19th century, the bonded slaves served a crucial role in the American labor sector of the economy. Though the bondage aspect was mostly used by the immigrants who had no finance to pay for their ocean passage. The bondage was also used to finance their medical care and also education. This indented servants never enjoyed the rights s8uch as the political and legal rights. In this century though Philadelphia has a good and developed slavery bondage market which served the Philadelphia city and the surrounding regions such as the European market. This market had many features such as rational labor and the capital market, it also provided ways to financing movement and education.
Summarize the hardships of the passage from old England to Philadelphia as they are described by the author.
From the places where the movement starts that was either in Amsterdam of in Rotterdam, hundreds of slaves were put into medium-sized vessels which had limited spaces to accommodate each of them. Before the journey even starts as the ship is waiting for be fully loaded and when the customs are paid all the slaves are compelled to consume all their stocked food and water before the journey even begins so that during the journey they would be in a greater need of their masters at the sea. When the journey starts at the sea, they are forced to eat rotten food, dirty salty water. Most of them die of hunger thirst and some even sea diseases that come because of the poor health environment surrounding them. Young children barely survive this suffering and most of them are usually thrown at sea by the tyrants.
How are the hardships of the sea exacerbated upon reaching land
When the ship has docked on the coast, more problems start to escalate for the slaves. The ship crew will only allow those slaves who can pay for the trip or can offer good securities for their trip to leave the ship and go freely. Those who are unable to pay will be left on the ship for the buyers to come and bargain for their release. For those slaves in the vessel who are perceived to be sick and weak may end up spending several days or weeks as they wait for their time to be released. Families that came together and were unable to pay for their release are always separated since each member is usually bought by a different buyer.
Describe the various possible arrangements related to the purchase of newly arrived servants from Europe.
During the sale of the slaves, various people from different places could come and chose the servant they will want to take and from there depending on the age they will come to agreeable terms of the period in which they would offer their services. For the adult people, they would serve for a period of between 3-6 years based on their strength and their age while the young people would be compelled to serve till they were 21 years then left to go at their will. When it came to families, when the children decided to stand for themselves, their parents would be allowed to go free without knowing the whereabouts of their children. In case one family member died at seas, the remaining members would serve the terms for the dead one at sea.
Olaudah Equiano, The middle passage 1788
The middle passage involved the forced capture and sailing of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to America. This trade was triangular since the Africans were kidnapped by either 0the whites or their fellow Africans then forced to sail across the Atlantic Ocean to America. They were then bought to work as servants of in big plantations that had sugar, rice, tobacco, indigo, and cotton then these products could be moved to Europe processed then taken to African again. This passage offered a rejuvenated world in terms of trade that was broadly motivated by the workforce who were the international slaves. On the contrary, this passage rendered suffering and anguish to the Africans who had been forced to actively work in the farms.
Note the authors beliefs regarding the intent of and the characters of the captors on board the ship. In what terms does he describe his captors What does he assume is the purpose of capturing him
Olaudah Equiano beliefs that the purpose of his capture was to kill him. This though comes even clear when he saw huge furnace of boiling copper and closer to it are people of his color chained and their faces reading sorrow and terror. The author describes the character of the captors as a brutal and a cruel character, he came up with this conclusion in many in states, to begin with, was because of his forceful capture, secondly is the way they were treated and the conditions they were subjected to during the journey, thirdly is the way he saw how the even treated the people with their same color. They hanged and killed even one of their own.
How does he view the prospect of work once they reach their destination
They were taken to a huge sugarcane plantation in Virginia to work there, the amount of work that they had to do was too much base on the small number they had.
Identify and analyze the authors conclusion about the civilization of the captors based on their behavior.
The author characterizes the civilization of his captors as unprecedented and primitive and inhuman. This is because of the hostile conditions that they had subjected through their experience with them. Taking a good instance where they had eaten fish and some fish has remained instead of giving some to them they threw it back to the ocean. The second instance is by them killing their kind for a small and forgivable mistake. Lastly, is because of the hostility they showed through the journey.
j. Hector St. John Crevecoeur, what is an American 1782
America is formed by people from different races nationalities and different ethnicity. This started way back in the 17th century during the slave trade between Europe Africa an America. The migration escalated even more during the Second World War in Europe and many people across the European belt preferred to move across the Atlantic to America and seek asylum there. And from these movements, America has been from literally all the people across the world.
Summarize the thoughts and feelings that Crevecoeur imagines must be experienced by Englishmen when they visit America.
In his view, he says that an Englishman must feel happy for he has lived a time that he has discovered a country that he can settle in. he must feel some national pride of the country he is in compared to that where he came from. He sees the industry of Native County displayed in a new manner.
How does the author describe the lifestyle and social relations of Americans
The author describes the social relationship and the lifestyle of the Americans as accommodating once. Since the gap between the rich and the poor is not that large as compared to that in Europe since the rich easily interact with the poor. The people in power do not have the motive of suppressing their subjects by treating them as slaves and taking away their belongings which is the character of some lords in England. The people are paid according to the work they do, hence become able to sustain themselves.
In what ways is America described as the land of opportunities especially for the poor
This is because when he compares life in England and America there is a great variation. In the passage he speaks about England as a nation that had no food for him, had no land that he possessed and instead all the land belonged to just a few rich people, has very bad laws that always subjected the common citizen into server punishment. He describes Europe as a place where he was not even considered a citizen. Though when he came to America, the kind of reception he was accorded when he arrived, he talks about America having laws that protect everyone irrespective of the rank. In America also a laborer is rewarded according to the work he has done. And with the payment, he can buy land for himself. He describes America as the land of free men.
What reasons are suggested for an American loving much more than the country for his forefathers
This is because comparing from the land they came from where there was no land for him, no food for him no protection from the government and severe consequences cause on him in case of any small mistake. Here is a land where there is new leadership that he obeys, the rewards of laborers are given to them in advance and he can easily own his land for any kind of use.
C. Compare the experiences and attitudes of each author
The first author Gottlieb Mittelberge tries to seek refuge in America by escaping from Europe and in the process, he is subjected to a lot of suffering during his journey. After the journey at sea, he then realizes that he cannot move freely unless he pays for his passage.
The second author Olaudah Equiano an African at the age of 11 finds himself in trouble after being kidnapped and taken to America. In the journey, he is also subjected to several mistreatments under hostile situations such as being denied food to eat. He is then taken to work at a plantation as a slave.
The third author J. Hector St John Crevecoeur who was a French nationality, went to America voluntarily to seek asylum away from the human hostile conditions in Europe. In contrary to the other authors, he describes America as the best place that accommodates poor people and gives them a sense of belonging.
D. Conclude with a brief personal response to the document
Based on the messages that all the above authors convey it is quite clear that America is formed by people from different parts of the world. These people may have either come voluntarily or an involuntary basis. Though with time each of them came up to make America a better place to live and each of them has greatly contributed to the growth of America.
Gottlieb Mittelberger, The passage of the Indentured Servants (1750)
Olaudah Equiano, The Middle Passage (1788)
J. Hector St. John Crevecoeur, What is an American (1782)
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