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Our world has gone through multiple changes since its beginning. History has witnessed numerous changes in the geographical patterns, sociological circles, governing patterns, political structures and in many other aspects. Previously there used to be limited population, thus the problems were also limited. With the passage of the time, as the human population started to increase, the issues also started growing. The land started falling short for the growing population and humans had to move to other parts of the planet to accommodate themselves. As a result of this, many humans left their areas and moved towards different areas, in order to find better space and resources for themselves. Not only individuals participated in this migration, but they also took their whole families and even tribes to the new locations. This migration resulted in the formation of multiple countries and dynasties, which adopted sophisticated civilizations and left rich history to be plundered upon.
Many examples of such diverse cultures and civilizations can be found in history. Some of the most prominent ones of these are the civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Shang State in China. These both civilizations are known for their fertile culture, rich civilizations, valuable resources, well-developed Government systems, and high-end infrastructure.
The area of Mesopotamia is a historical region, which constitutes the space between the Tigris-Euphrates river systems. Most of the area that is covered by the Mesopotamian region constitutes the territory of Iraq, Kuwait, regions from Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey and areas along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran-Iraq Borders.
The Shang State in China, on the other hand, was situated in the Yellow River Valley of China. The Shang State, most popularly known as Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty, walked the Earth in the second millennium and progressed to becoming Xia Dynasty and finally Zhou Dynasty. Various accounts are present for the ruling dates of the Shang Dynasty; as per the traditional chronology presented by Liu Xin, the Shangs ruled the area from 1766 to 1122 BC, whereas Bamboo Annals presents the chronology to be from 1556 to 1046 BC.
Various factors play a role in explaining the history and the practices that were being carried on at the time of governance of these civilizations in the areas of Mesopotamia and Shang Dynasty. If the example of Mesopotamia is considered, the significant factors which played a role in the understanding and explanation of that time period are Amorites and The Hammurapi’s Code. The Amorites are the people who partly speak and understand Afro-Asiatic languages and occupied large areas of southern Mesopotamia from 21st century BC to the end of 17th Century BC. The Amorites played a significant role in Mesopotamia by establishing multiple prominent existing city-states and establishing a stable government system for the region. One of the most notable examples of the states developed by Amorites is the city of Babylon. Hammurapi’s code also assists significantly in clearing the concepts of ancient civilizations as Hammurapi (or more popularly known as Hammurabi) gave an organized set of rules to the state to run and handle the state affairs in an organized way. Hammurapi was a very popular and intelligent ruler of Mesopotamia who held the throne the sixth king of Old Babylonia’s First Dynasty. Hammurapi’s code was, in fact, a compilation or 300 edicts on handling crimes and serving punishments against them CITATION Pol14 \l 1033 (Pollard).
Meanwhile, if the example of Shang State is considered, the Shang Dynasty consisted of rulers who used Oracle Bones to resolve queries and predict the future. Oracle bones usually consisted of bones of large animals and shells from turtles, which were carved with questions and pits, in order to find answers to the future. It can be seen that the Shang Dynasty moved its capitals very often and finally Pan Geng was finalized as the capital. This usually happened due to the high frequency of natural disasters, floods, to find fertile lands, to resolve the issues of corruption and the continuous battle over the throne.
The failing of various ancient civilizations can be attributed to climate change issues, especially the civilizations of Shang Dynasty, Mesopotamia, Egyptian Dynasties and Indus Valley Civilizations. The collapsing of these dynasties can be attributed to the factor of Climate change as almost all of these civilizations were present on the banks or near big rivers, the climate change caused severe rains and flooding in the rivers which became a reason of eradication of these civilizations from Earth.
BIBLIOGRAPHY \l 1033 Pollard, Rosenberg, and Tignor, General Editors, et al. "Nomads, Territorial States, and MicroSocieties." Pollard, Rosenberg, and Tignor, General Editors, et al. World Together, World Apart. WW Norton, 2014. 89-105.
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