19th Century Reforms Essay
History and Anthropology
23 October 2019
Nineteenth-Century reform movements
Nineteenth-century reform movements were the political movements initiated by the local subjects of different kingdoms and states across the globe. They included several different movements inspired by the Second Awakening and Transcendentalism CITATION Phi07 \l 1033 (Gura, 2007). These movements aimed to gain rights from the ruling elite after the concept of nationalism started to take root in the daily lives of the people. One of these important movements was called temperance, which gave the concept of banning alcoholic beverages in the US. Another one of these movements moved for free education in all the US. In addition to that, different sections of the society were studied under the philosophy of transcendentalism, which believed in the good nature of the people and that everyone should be treated with respect, even criminals. These movements helped found several different organizations in the US like the American Anti-Slavery Society. A lot of movements were also initiated in states besides the US. For example, in European states, there was active campaigning for women's rights that finally paved the way for their right to vote CITATION Mar12 \l 1033 (Fuller, 2012). The Tanzimat movement was started by the Ottomans in attempts to modernize their empire and usher in a new era of prosperity. Several reforms were passed in the Russian Empire as well regarding the judicial system, the abolition of serfdom and the building of modern infrastructure CITATION Ale05 \l 1033 (Polunov, 2005). The Asians were also not left out of the fray as well. The Meiji Restoration was a set of reforms implemented in Japan that turned a weak ancient kingdom into a strong empire that annexed the entire Korean peninsula and a significant portion of China. The Chinese experienced a political reform of its own, in the shape of the Boxer's rebellion, that aimed at decreasing the British influence within their borders CITATION Mar15 \l 1033 (Margrit Pernau, 2015). Hence the nineteenth century experienced an unprecedented array of reforms that set the precedent of the modern nation-state concept and political system that is currently used throughout the world.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Fuller, M. (2012). Woman in the Nineteenth Century.
Gura, P. F. (2007). American Transcendentalism: A History.
Margrit Pernau, C. B. (2015). Civilizing Emotions: Concepts in Nineteenth-Century Asia and Europe.
Polunov, A. (2005). Russia in the Nineteenth Century: Autocracy, Reform, and Social Change, 1814-1914.
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