Research Topic On The Communication Barriers In Class
INFECTION CONTROL AND FLU VACCINE
City and state
INFECTION CONTROL AND FLU VACCINE
This paper is aimed at exploring the effectiveness of flu vaccines in infection control with reference to students’ perspectives. A brief rationale behind selecting this subject matter will be defined under the background section followed by the description of research hypothesis and research objectives. In order to settle the arguments concerning hypothesis on the logical and rational grounds, two peer reviewed literature pieces would be identified and embraced deliberate contemplated discussion. Further, two methods of data collection would be identified based on their favorableness with respect to time and economical resources. The result section will attempt to document the findings attained from the prospective data collection tools followed by their detailed explanation in the conclusion section. Practical implication and suggestions would encapsulate the practical relevancy of the research findings and potential suggestions to overcome methodological shortcomings. The reflection section, in the end, will attempt to wrap my personal perspectives and feelings regarding whole research activity and its valuable findings. In a nutshell, this paper will provide the reader with the profound understanding about the subject matter based on the preexisting literature and freshly executed research activity.
Flu is termed as highly contagious respiratory illness characterized by cough, sore, throat, headache, fatigue, muscle aches, runny nose and shivering. Influenza virus is the most exclusive cause behind flu symptoms. It is said to be highly contagious because tiny droplets of the fluid act as active mediums to spread this disease through coughing, talking or sneezing. After landing on the mouth or nose of the nearby individuals, viruses contained in these droplets are absorbed into the blood stream and interfere with the structural and functional working of the various body organs. As soon as the virus arrives into the body, our lymphocytes—an integral part of immune system— recognize these entities as the antigens and start developing prospective antibodies to engulf them. This process is natural however in the individuals with compromised immune system; vaccines are required to develop antibodies within the body for the influenza virus to combat them soon after their arrival. Hence, vaccine acts as the first line intervention to prevent and treat flu. Based on the effectiveness of vaccines, I chose this topic to undertake thorough contemplation though systematic research. The basic rationale behind conducting this research is to contribute to the existing acceptability of vaccines in treating and preventing flu and improving the nursing interventions in this regard.
There is a significant negative relationship between acquisition of flu and utilization of vaccines
To enable students to increase their knowledge about vaccinations
To contribute to the preexisting literature concerning effectiveness of vaccines
To encourage the utilization of influenza vaccines in the class
To obtain hands- on knowledge about the effectiveness of flu vaccines
In order to support the hypothesis through preexisting literature, following studies were identified and selected from the Pub MED website. Their brief summary will be presented below which will highlight the significance and effectiveness of vaccines as the first line prevention and treatment option for flu.
Pub MED https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160951/
This article attempted to define the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in three classes of the subjects; healthy adults, newborns and pregnant women. It was a systematic review that included various cross- sectional correlational and experimental studies from various databases i.e., Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and EMBASE. After analyzing the available data, it was found that individuals who received inactivated influenza vaccine after birth experienced less influenza symptoms, Influenza- like symptoms, hospitalization and severe symptoms as compared to the individuals with no vaccine just after vaccination and later life stages. Another finding indicated that side effects of influenza vaccines were considerably higher in newborns and pregnant women as compared to the general population encapsulating the mild intensity of fever whereas no evidence was found concerning nausea and vomiting. However, the protective effects of vaccines were also measured greater in pregnant women and newborn as compared to the general population; no correlation was found between severe side effects and influenza vaccines. In a nutshell, effectiveness of vaccines dominated their side effects to a considerable degree.
Pub MED https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24034492
This article was aimed at guiding the healthcare workers over preventive strategies regarding influenza virus because it is highly contagious in nature and spreads readily to the individuals that they come in direct contact with. Healthcare workers spend most of their time with patients hence they have the potential to act as a vector of influenza from one patient to others. This study summarized the systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in providing the direct protection to at risk- individuals mainly suffering from respiratory complications. In order to attain the appropriate literature through a predefined strategy, numerous sources of grey literature and databases were searched resulting in the selection of 20 relevant articles. The desirable entities were extracted from the pool based on the specified inclusion criteria. Validated tools were used to identify the risks associated with research methodology and results were summarized qualitatively. After analyzing the data, it was found that influenza vaccines are very likely to offer protection against respiratory complications particularly in flu and its associated symptoms. Hence, this study also provided a sound basis to my research hypothesis and validated the efficacy of vaccines in controlling and treating flu symptoms successfully—a type of respiratory illness.
TWO METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION WITH THEIR RATIONALE
In the social and medical sciences, the primary tool of data extraction is human being himself. Although human beings threaten the validity of research findings through their subjectivity and individual differences yet they also contribute to the creation of significant and valuable knowledge within the prospective fields. All the data collection tools revolve around the appropriateness of the type of population considered for research measures and the nature of relationship between variables being measured. In my research, data will be collected from students for exploring their perspective regarding the effectiveness of vaccines to treat flu symptoms. For that matter, interviews and surveys are the best methods for collecting desired data from the population.
Surveys are mainly used for quantitative research—they quantify the responses into numbers which makes the systematic analysis easy and accurate. Open and close ended questionnaires are the best tools of data collection that encapsulate the items measuring desired phenomenon. A close ended questionnaire might have dichotomous or polychotomous format with their prospective values of reliability and validity. Surveys are less time and resource consuming because we can obtain larger data from numerous individuals at the same time without manipulating conditions in laboratory.
The second tool of data collection is interview. Interview questions might also be close and open ended aimed at exploring the phenomenon profoundly and allowing the researcher to obtain in- depth information along with the verbal and non- verbal cues coming from the subjects regarding problem issue. Interviews are also highly economical in nature however they are highly effort and time consuming. An average interview may last for 30-40 minutes ranging from 2-3 sessions for each individual. A calm and distraction- free environment is also a prerequisite for conducting interview successfully. Therefore, it requires substantial efforts but gives profound access to data.
Items were first designed for exploring student’s views regarding the effectiveness of vaccines in controlling flu symptoms. Total of 5 items will be designed for collecting data through interview and questionnaires. For the survey, out of five, two items will be worded negatively for eliminating the response bias; they will be fed into data analysis software after reverse scoring. Reliability and validity of the items will be tested through pilot study on the sample of 10. After designing the survey instrument, an informed consent will be attached with it and data will be collected from 20 students. On the other hand, 2 students will be selected for interview purpose and after developing rapport, data will be obtained. Data collection through survey will take place at classroom and will be completed in 10 minutes approximately whereas interviews will be conducted in free classes and will take 30 minutes to complete. After obtaining the data from both the tools, it will be analyzed using different approaches.
Data obtained from survey will be analyzed using two different tools; Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21 and thematic analysis for the data obtained from questionnaires and interviews respectively. In the SPSS, data would be fed and bi-variate correlation command will be run. Results will indicate strong negative correlation between utilization of vaccines and instances of getting the flu symptoms. On the other hand, thematic analysis of the interview data would give off two themes; logical views about vaccines and their observable effectiveness.
A strong negative correlation between utilization of vaccines and instances of getting the flu symptoms indicates that when vaccine use becomes high, the instances of getting flu symptoms would be declined. In other words, students’ perspective suggests that vaccines must be used as the first line treatment for flu symptoms. On the other hand, thematic analysis would propound following results; logical views about vaccines and their observable effectiveness. Overall, students hold positive views about vaccine use; depicted through above mentioned themes. Logical views encapsulate the mechanism of action of vaccines that they learned in the academic course; these views helped them realizing the effectiveness of vaccines in the most logical manner. Further, observable effectiveness includes their personal and others’ experience that they found favorable; subjects benefited from these vaccines.
Based on the proven effectiveness of vaccines, findings have the potential to be applied in the clinical setting for mitigating flu symptoms on the part of nurses and patients. Nurses can vaccinate themselves for influenza virus so that they could protect themselves from transmitting viruses to the patients. It can be used for infected patients who do not produce enough antibodies as well.
SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
The attainment of perfection in terms of results particularly in the behavioral and medical sciences is something next to impossible. This happens for many reasons; methodological troubles and subjective biasness. Methodological complications may include means of sample selection, number of subjects (sample size), selection criteria, validity and reliability of instrument, items being over representative or under representative of the subject matter and language of the items. Subjective biasness includes innate predispositions or environmental influences responsible for perceiving situations, optimism and pessimism of subjects, mental state, halo effect, conformity, the attainment of social desirability, subjective approach of researcher to interpret the results and lack of researching skills. These factors may threaten the validity and generalization of results gravely. However, some of these methodological complications can be corrected; for example, random sampling technique might be used to eliminate selection biasness because it gives equal chance of selection to all the members of population. Furthermore, increasing the sample size might eliminate another methodological complication. These factors can be addressed to eliminate limitations and to make the findings more applicable.
I somewhere heard; the best lessons of life come from live experiences. This phrase strikingly illuminated my mind when I thought about reflecting upon this activity. Undoubtedly, we learn better from experiencing situations at our own; although I added two widely- acknowledged literature articles yet they did not make me learn about the effectiveness of vaccines as good as my personal indulgence did. I learned about exploring things scientifically, thinking and acting like a researcher and contemplating the phenomenon of interest holistically. I learned that situations and events are interrelated and affect each other and only researchers pay this much attention to the trivial happenings. I felt good about it because I created and contributed something to the world of knowledge. In a nutshell, this activity enabled me to find the question, devise hypothesis and explore the most scientific ways to test my hypothesis. I can say that I explored the research validity about the effectiveness of vaccines in controlling the flu symptoms scientifically.
Dolan G. P. Harris R. C. Clarkson, M. et. al. 2013. Vaccination of healthcare workers to protect patients at increased risk of acute respiratory disease: summary of a systematic review. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 7(2): pp.93-6. doi: 10.1111/irv.12087.
Demicheli V., Jefferson T., Ferroni E. 2018. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1(2):CD001269. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub6.
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