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French Revolution is termed as a watershed event of the late 17 century, dated from 1789 to 1790s. This period began with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. The time when America was discovered, along with the discovery of the sea routes to India, paved the way for new opportunities for Europe to face the world with renaissance and revival. Historians assert that the French Revolution has brought a massive and evident shift in this world, specifically in the New World and Europe (Seton-Watson). Many people believe that the word bourgeoise has almost disappeared from the western discourse, while others found it a prevalent social structure. There are both positive and negative aspects associated with the impact of the French Revolution on public especially bourgeoise, taking into account the fact that bourgeoise is one of the most exposed and affected classes of the movement (Seton-Watson). French Revolution is one of the historical events that is connected with the rise of the bourgeoisie.
One of the major critical debates of the present time is the question, whether French Revolution has brought the Bourgeoisie revolution as well, or is it just a word of mouth that is promoted from the historians to the reader and then to the tellers. However, the classical interpretation of this fact can be traced back to the time of Michelet, along with 20-century Marxist Theorists, who introduced the concept of class and society structure (Bertaud). This framework also highlighted and incorporated the transformation and then strive of sustenance by the middle-class people by now. It is asserted that the French society was classified as clergy, the aristocrat and the third estate that includes some diverse groups. Bourgeoise is one of the groups of the Third State, which is also known to be most differentiated (Bertaud). This category included people such as scientists, lawyers, doctors and the members of the today administration who were not directly the role holder but served as a backbone to the central owners. It is evident and asserted that the bourgeois group has a gradual and progressive journey to the social, moral and economic upheaval that is continuing to date and is expected to prolong till the societal norms expand (Bertaud). Today the connotation of bourgeois and middle class is the ruling class of the capitalist society that is also termed as a social stratum. Many of the authors would define and explain bourgeoise as men and women whose thinking is determined by the social and economic factors of materialistic resources and the political powers. French Revolution is termed as one of the most influential and dramatic upheavals in history. This upheaval can be traced in different aspects, dimension and departments of life such as politics, industrialization and the social reforms. However, it is also asserted that the French Revolution paved the way for a series of wars that behooved the United Stated to incorporate a clear policy of neutrality so as to avoid being embroiled in the European conflicts (Bertaud). It is highlighted that the French Revolution has paved the way for political unrest in which many of the middle-class people were doomed to be a victim of compensations of the approaching glitters of success. In contrast, the traditional view and picture of England as a beacon of progress highlighted that England had gained one of the major grips of progression as a result of the French revolution (Bertaud).
From an analysis of industrial revolution, it is highlighted that the historical movement of revolution in France led to the formation and establishment of the platform of industrialization. The period of 18 and 19 centuries is clear evidence of the transformations, revolutions and the reformations that took place in human history (Bertaud). In a simplified form, the industrial revolution was the result of the French Revolution and it ultimately paved the way for the upheaval of mankind. With the setup of industries, a prime focus was given to the management of the industries and it was done by today's middle-class population. The bourgeoisie or the middle-class people refer to a social class that lies somewhere between rich and poor, their lives were dependent on the trends that were set by the upper class and they are one trying to catch up with the set dimensions of being second top upper class (Pinkney). So, the industrial revolution ultimately lead to the rise of the bourgeois. An analysis of the current situation reveals that even today, managerial roles are assigned to the class second to the upper class, i.e., the bourgeois class, which is occupying and accommodating white-collar jobs. A critical approach connects today's bourgeoise class to the industrial class of the French Revolution (Pinkney). Although many historian and critics such as Pinkney, think that industrial revolution suppressed bourgeoise class because the more people get skilled, the more they get options to work and it resulted in the competition where white-collar roles are observed by the lower class people, also, it is highlighted that French Revolution has nothing to do with the rise of bourgeoisie (Pinkney). So it is asserted that industrialization came to prominence just during the French Revolution. Today, the world's major industries are working and operate in Europe. Major of the world imports belong to Europe, so more industries lead to more options for employment and working. It asserted that the French Revolution asserted and promoted the rise of bourgeoise who were somewhat in a better position and more knowledgeable in terms of managing and distributing as compared to the upper and lower class. Here, it is signified that industrialization is not just confined to huge workplaces, but it also refers to the home-made industries and other small workplaces that are contributing to 30% of the world’s economy (Bertaud). It is also highlighted that the Upper class is the one who owns, but catering to the task of managing and adjusting is left in the hand of the middle-class people who are also termed as the Bourgeoisie class.
Another aspect that highlights the rise of bourgeoise is the social contact of the French revolution. Social upheaval and transformation are one of the major and important features of the French Revolution. Under the impact of this revolution, people came to know more about building societies and addressing social norms with a critical approach (Brockliss, pp. 110-115). As a result, a class appeared that was dreaming and eager about high standards of life with the required competency, and this class was middle class, also called Bourgeoise class. Also, it is asserted that the emerged class laid the foundation of different species that can comprise and constitute people of similar minds and progressive to live. As a result, middle-class societies were formed that were more towards a positive approach of life with social morals that can impart sophistication to the overall personality of people. Even today, there are societies that are struggling and trying to enact modern norms that can place them at a level above the top of the other social frameworks (Brockliss, pp. 110-115). Although it is argued that societal upheaval is a progressive and autonomous phenomenon, that is driven by exposure and knowledge, still, it is asserted that if there would not have been French Revolution, there would hardly be an option and a set standard for the upheaval that differentiate a specific class from the one that is devoted to seeking means for earning a living. French Revolution played a central role in the enlightenment of social norms that promoted the rising of Bourgeoisie (Pinkney).
Economic upheaval, in particular, is one of the major aspects that have paved the way for the rising of the bourgeoisie. It is highlighted that before the French revolution, the exchange of commodities was just confined to the realms of sustenance. There were no prominent or evident options that could be life-supporting, or that could assert the significance of the exchange of some minor commodities (Brockliss, pp. 110-115). With the French Revolution, there was a push towards trade, leading to the import and export of goods. It is also highlighted that the practice of trade is still continuing and it has brought a massive shift to the world economy. To the idea of rise of the bourgeoisie, it is asserted that traders or merchants are there, even in the past, the merchant and traders belonged to middle-class families, the people who were eager to improve their living standards (Bertaud). Moreover, the chain of supply and demand also got regulated just because of the middle-class people who not only engage themselves in trade, but they offer resources capable of life-saving for others who are still lying between the upper class and the lower class. As a result of this sale and purchase, there were a lot of resources that were provided within the affordable economic range for people, leading to economic progression that uplifted the living standard. Although many of the critics assert that trade was initiated by the upper-class people because they were the ones who could afford the resources to achieve and arrange for the trips. Still, it is argued that no doubt, trips were arranged by the upper-class people. Still, the travelers majorly belonged to the middle-class population (Pinkney). As a result, many of the people presented themselves to do challenging tasks and activities such as shipping and voyages, which is termed as one of the major sources of income. This income not only created a familial lineage of the profession, but it also promoted sources of income. The same phenomena can be observed in the case of agriculture. It is highlighted that there was an increasing agricultural product between 1715 and 1789, where the products were sold at a constant price of 40% (Seton-Watson). It was one of the impressive changes and sound evidence that there was development with stagnation. The idea of agricultural growth is guided by the idea of tasks and duties that are required to fulfill the agricultural tasks such as clearing wastelands, sowing of the seeds and then harvesting crops. The use of working capital or the circulating capital was played by the middle-class people who were able to manage to the work and lands of the owner and bring laborers in contact with the required task (Bertaud). Although this section also served as an upheaval for the lower class, middle class is one of the major sections that was directly benefited and came to know about the treasures of landowning and then managing by effective use of resources, power, and machinery.
In a general context, the idea of bourgeoise is replaced with the introduction to some new terms that are more fascinating and converting as compared to other connotations of the cream of the societal cake. This particular set of people is brought to the timeline of the world from the French Revolution, which guided and promoted the effort of those who are positioned at the central point of social structure, the ones who are the framework designers and the trendsetter of people who have to struggle a lot for their resources and life-saving options (Pinkney). Also, it is highlighted that historical contexts assert that today’s middle class or the upper-middle class is an extension of the trends and the divisions that were made by the French Revolution in the form of different upheavals. It is also important to note that the current features of the Bourgeoisie are a code that was formulated by the French Revolution and is continually enforced in the form of different traditions and ideologies (Brockliss, pp. 110-115).
It is asserted that French Revolution is connected with the Rise of Bourgeoise, not only in past but in present time as well because if there would not have been French Revolution, then there would not have been privileged departments for the middle class to sustain and maintain its approach to life and social structure. Also, the world of modernism has different platforms, needs a managing class with some leadership attributes affirms that French Revolution has set the stage for the rise of bourgeoise not only in the past but in the present as well.
Bertaud, Jean Paul. The army of the French Revolution: From citizen-soldiers to instrument of power. Vol. 5444. Princeton University Press, 2019.
Brockliss, Laurence. "A Literary Tour de France. The World of Books on the Eve of the French Revolution The French Book Trade in Enlightenment Europe, I. Selling Enlightenment The French Book Trade in Enlightenment Europe, II. Enlightenment Bestsellers." (2019): 110-115.
Pinkney, David H. French Revolution of 1830. Vol. 5512. Princeton University Press, 2019.
Seton-Watson, Hugh. The East European Revolution. Routledge, 2019.
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