Digital Crime Theories
Assignment 2: Digital Crime Theories
Dr. Douglas Dennis
February 18, 2019
According to (Walsh,2017). ‘Parents are sacrificing their efforts and time just so that their children could have a better future, and on the other hand, good rulers hold their enjoyments like ceremonies to make sure they reserve something for the future, and children give up their leisure of playing and other activities in favor of getting a better education and future prospects. However, these actions keep discretion, and they are known to be indifferent than that of the animals. Then, there is the Rational Choice Theory, which differs instating of the idea that people are different in their consciousness of the actions they are about to make and the decisions they are going to take. For the purpose, they have a certain agency or a reason for the execution of the action. That agency follows means at the end, which implies benefits, costs or any other thing. The theory is implicated in many ways, for example in crime prevention, regardless of the cause that it might be street or digital, etc. The designing of the theory is met for the criminal in a way that crime is designed purposively in a commonplace setting to meet needs of the offender in a meeting which involves making of the decisions, tightened and forced by the designed limits, abilities and the ability of relevant information. The Rational Choice Theory refers to the approach that
People prefer outcomes; other than preferencing actions or behaviors
People make the actions based on their preference of the outcome, other than the cost that it may cause or occurs throughout.
The order of the preferences among the people ranged from the most-valued to least valued. The thought of the preferences in their mind is stable because they don’t change other than the modification when new information is received.
Preference is also based upon people’s assessments of the benefits and their influential outcomes. CITATION Geo \l 1033 (Higgins, 2007)
According to (Tomlinson, 2016), for some individuals, there is no problem in going to
prison as being arrested, serving time in jail or prison is just another way of life. Thinking through these preferences, people go blind in making a rational choice. People forget the consequence of irrational choices especially when they are on drugs or drunk. Research shows that a number of individuals admitted either they were on drugs or under the influence of alcoholic drink when they were arrested. (Chapman et al., 2010). Such individuals have a forgotten preference on the influential outcomes, committing a crime because of their routinely irrational behaviour. When thinking through the irrational behaviour, most criminals approach proactive and reactive criminal thinking rather thinking like a rational category. This happens so because of the thinking and acting of the people that it would bluster out in the best of their interests which rather doesn’t. For some cultural criminologists, the newest logical ways of thinking might be illogical and irrational. The reason for that crime to be irrational can be the center, a series of objectives and the decision making strategies that show them a reflection of their and some material values that might be associated with the modern consumerism. However, several studies state that committing a crime is always a choice and totally dependent on the criminal. But on the other hand, a crime, in the same way, can be irrational. For example, just think of a kid, who looted a pack of chocolates and uploaded its video rioting on the social media.
The crimes and computer offences in the digital organizations are largely increasing to hack or somehow, manipulate the Information Management Systems and their databases. A number of researches have identified through the literature review that the core of these crimes and offences is the rational choice behavior. However, self-control theory also propels with committing digital crimes. Self-control theory argues that all of the human beings have the same potential of committing a crime if they are given the right circumstances. But according to the self-theory, not everyone becomes a criminal because of their self-control capability which is the ability to control the act of committing crimes when given the right circumstance. It is also considered that crimes are most likely to occur when individuals with low self-control are given opportunities and right circumstances to commit a crime CITATION Qin10 \l 1033 (Qing Hu, 2010).
As stated by (Kennedy,2009), in an argument as many as ways we are seeking to deter crime, is, in fact, facilitating the offence. Deterrence concept is assumed in two different ways: First is that there should be imposing of several punishments to the offenders to prevent them from committing more crimes; the second approach utilizes the fear of punishment to prevent the offenders from committing crimes. A simple step range should be followed effectively to provide clear information which can show a transformation in the deterrence, or the communities around the increasing rate should be more effective than the legal authorities of penology in deterring the crimes. The minor sections of the society can be more effective in deterring of the crimes than the major ones. Rather than individuals, big groups should focus on the deterrence. The legal tools that are already existing should be used in effective ways to reduce the amount of deterration significantly. A large number of offenders can be reached through moral engagement and the authorities, communities, and offenders should share a common ground, regardless of the difference to deter the crimes.
Kennedy, D. M. (2009). Deterrence and Crime Prevention : Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanction. London: Routledge. Retrieved from http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=476366&site=eds-live&scope=site
Tomlinson, K. D. (2016). An Examination of Deterrence Theory: Where Do We Stand? Federal Probation, 80(3), 33–38. Retrieved from http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=121317709&site=eds-live&scope=site
Walsh, J., Ph.D. (2017). Rational choice theory. Salem Press Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=89677617&site=eds-live&scope=site
BIBLIOGRAPHY Higgins, G. E. (2007). Digital Piracy, Self-Control Theory, and Rational Choice: An Examination of the Role of Value. International Journal of Cybercriminology, 33-55.
Qing Hu, Z. X. (2010). Why Individuals Commit Computer Offences in Organizations: Investigating the Roles of Rational Choice, Self-Control, and Deterrence. Supply Chain and Information Management. Iowa.
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