Sexual assault is one of the major issues not only in the USA but around the world. Studies have been conducted around the world to determine what causes people to commit these types of crimes in order to reduce their incidence. Pornography is mostly argued for being one of the possible causes of rape and sexual assault. Over the last few years, pornography legalities have been a heated issue as most people believe that it leads to women objectification. Some studies advocate that there is a connection between rape and pornography and viewing pornography at a very young age is associated with individual sexual behaviors. A study was conducted in 2014 and it was determined that pornography influenced the sexual behavior of half of the men that were included in the study. This study also stated that viewing of pornography foster unhealthy and unfavorable sexual attitude among young people ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Brown</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>1205</RecNum><DisplayText>(Brown & L'Engle, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1205</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573060584">1205</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Brown, Jane D</author><author>L'Engle, Kelly L</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>X-rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with US early adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit media</title><secondary-title>Communication Research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Communication Research</full-title></periodical><pages>129-151</pages><volume>36</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>0093-6502</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Brown & L'Engle, 2009). On the other hand, many researches show that exposure to pornography does not lead to sexual assault. It is not possible to find an exact answer to the question of the association between pornography and rape?
The type of media and images that are considered pornographic have changed considerably over time. Pornography is defined as any kind of media with nudity and sexual activity that is explicit and has the main purpose of sexual arousal. In a rape culture, sexual violence against both men and women are rationalized and portrayed in the media. It becomes more prevalent through the objectification of women, language used among individuals and normalcy of sexually violent acts. To properly determine the association between exposure to pornography and increased cases of rape, it is very important to first understand the culture that is behind the sexual violence and factors that contribute to it. The way sex and women are represented in media plays an important part in the development of rape culture. Our media created the image of sex as unrealistic and casual especially through television shows and movies but more specifically through pornography. The portrayal of sex in movies and on television sends messages to its viewer that promotes the development of rape culture further. There is very little evidence present that supports that there is correlation between the pornography watched and sex-related crimes ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Malamuth</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>1204</RecNum><DisplayText>(Malamuth, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1204</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573060459">1204</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Malamuth, Neil M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Pornography and sexual aggression</title></titles><dates><year>2014</year></dates><publisher>Elsevier</publisher><isbn>1483295796</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Malamuth, 2014). It is very difficult to find the relationship between pornography and rape because most of the rape cases are not reported. In recent years, the growth of the pornography industry by the recent advances in technology and information has shaped the culture of rape. The pornography industry is involved in the distribution and production of sexually explicit material including audio, photos, literature movies, animation, toys and video games. Many studies are conducted around the world in which no significant association is found between pornography and sexually aggressive behavior such as sexual harassment and rape.
The assumption that pornography is a direct cause of rape was originally coined by the Christian police authorities and moralist politicians. In the academic world, among educationist psychiatrists, behavioral scientists, and psychologists, the pornography rape theory has been rejected. One of the most popular reports is of US commission on Pornography and obscenity which had scrutinized and sponsored many empirical studies and reviews between sex crime and pornography where no evidence has been found. Since 1970, the conservative/ Christian fight against pornography was joined by the groups of feminists and alliances were formed under the slogan of “pornography is a theory whereas rape is a practice”. The feminist claims, that increase of the availability of more misogynic and violent pornography were the main cause of the increasing prevalence of rape ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Murrin</Author><Year>1990</Year><RecNum>1203</RecNum><DisplayText>(Murrin & Laws, 1990)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1203</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="axzrwpxxqvwtw5evsf3xrer2arfwsa5f0e5d" timestamp="1573060395">1203</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book Section">5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Murrin, Mary R</author><author>Laws, DR</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The influence of pornography on sexual crimes</title><secondary-title>Handbook of sexual assault</secondary-title></titles><pages>73-91</pages><dates><year>1990</year></dates><publisher>Springer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Murrin & Laws, 1990). Most of the data on rape and pornography suggests that the correlation between them is weak. Pornography alone cannot be a cause of rape, however, combined with other multiple factors it can play a role in the its occurrence.
ADDIN EN.REFLIST Brown, J. D., & L'Engle, K. L. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual Attitudes And Behaviors Associated With US Early Adolescents' Exposure To Sexually Explicit Media. Communication Research, 36(1), 129-151.
Malamuth, N. M. (2014). Pornography And Sexual Aggression: Elsevier.
Murrin, M. R., & Laws, D. (1990). The Influence Of Pornography On Sexual Crimes Handbook Of Sexual Assault (Pp. 73-91): Springer.
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