Crime Occurrence Evaluation
Crime occurrence evaluation
The current trends indicate that the overall crime rates has declined in Australia but nature wise crime rates show differences. Some crimes have declined in the region while others have increased. The number of prisoners reported by the crime justice department depicts that they increased by 4%. In adult jails the number of prisoners increased from 41,202 in 2017 to 42,974 in 2018. The number of unsentenced prisoners also increased by 7%. In 2017 the number was 12,911 that reached to 13,856 in 2018 CITATION ABS18 \l 1033 (ABS, 2018). Homicides have also reduced as in total 414 cases were reported in 2017 compared to the 453 cases of 2016. Statistics states that in 2017, “the number of victims of Murder and Attempted murder decreased by 11% (down 24 victims) and 15% (down 30 victims) respectively. The majority of Murders (66%) and Attempted murders (55%) took place at a residential location” CITATION ABS181 \l 1033 (ABS, 2018). The rates of robbery and sexual assault have increased by 2% and 8% in 2017 respectively. The statistics indicates that the crime rates are controlled to larger extent in Australia. It is also important to determine the gender wise prevalence of crimes. Females were murdered less than males. The data reveals that less than one-third of the females were killed compared to males. Manslaughter rates also increased from 15 (2016) to 44 (2017). The total reported cases of sexual assaults were 24,597 in 2017 showing an increase from 23,040 of 2016.
Social and environmental factors leads to different crimes. Social factors that provokes an individual towards crime include poverty, economic deprivation, low education, conflict and anti-social behavior. Poverty is one of the most prominent factor that leads to crime. People who are striving for basic financial needs often find it difficult to adjust to the society. They find crime such as robbery at the only opportunity for achieving their dream CITATION Cel03 \l 1033 (Lo, 2003). Lack of education is another significant factor which, encourage individuals towards crimes. Without education they are unable to cling to the societal and moral values. They are easily convinced to commit crimes because they are unable to think rationally and ignored the consequences. Education is also important for finding a job and living a respectable life. Illiterate to less educated people fail to find appropriate jobs that results in their poverty and deprivation. The social conflict theory claims that, crime is can be seen “as a result of migration, when members of an outside group enter into the dominant group’s territory” CITATION Pam141 \l 1033 (Black, 2014). Anti-social attitude is another factor which, promote crimes.
Sociologists have found that people who are disconnected from the society are more likely to be tempted to crimes. Environmental factors that leads to crime include peers influence, background, pressure from parents and negative surrounds. Social structural theory states that individual having a criminal friend or who lives in the company of offenders is more likely to be influenced by them CITATION Mar164 \l 1033 (Mehrabi, Eskandarieh, Khodadost, Sadeghi, Nikfarjam, & Hajebi, 2016). Teens who are living in negative environment or face pressures also exhibits high likelihood of crimes. Some other factors that could provoke individuals to crime are depression and lack of financial support from society. Negative childhood events also increases probability of committing crime.
To investigate occurrence of crime I will integrate Social Conflict Theory. This theory states that inequality is the root cause of crimes. Poor are more likely to commit crimes because they lack access to basic necessities of life CITATION AOb78 \l 1033 (Oberschall, 1978). Their feelings of deprivations convince them to commit crime. In conducting investigations I would search the background and identify factors which might have caused an individual to commit crime.
Crime data can be obtained from the official sites of Australian Bureau of Statistics. Acquiring data from this site offer many benefits such as it provide authentic and reliable information. The statistics given on the site are computed through statistical techniques, based on credible sources. There are also some disadvantages such as the site provides limited data. Uniform Crime Reports can also be used for finding relevant crime data. The data offered on these sites is reliable and credible. It also identifies the profiling characteristics of criminals.
Crime research is significant for development of recidivism and policies on controlling crime. Research provides in-depth analysis of the factors that leads to the increased crime rates CITATION Mar164 \l 1033 (Mehrabi, Eskandarieh, Khodadost, Sadeghi, Nikfarjam, & Hajebi, 2016). The policy makers can rely on them for determining the effectiveness of the previously implemented policies and also identify measures for controlling crime in future. Short-comings of the policies such as negative impacts of long-term sentencing are also highlighted in research which provides future direction for the policy makers. These researches can also be used for evaluating the practical implications of crime prevention policies and areas that still need improvements.
BIBLIOGRAPHY ABS. (2018). VICTIMS OF CRIME, AUSTRALIA . Retrieved 10 28, 2019, from https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4510.0~2017~Main%20Features~Vicitms%20of%20Crime,%20Australia~3
ABS. (2018). 4517.0 - Prisoners in Australia. Retrieved 10 28, 2019, from https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/0/8D5807D8074A7A5BCA256A6800811054?Opendocument
Black, P. (2014). Conflict Theories of Crime . The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice .
Lo, C. C. (2003). An Application of Social Conflict Theory to Arrestees' Use of Cocaine and Opiates . Journal of Drug Issues , 33 (1).
Mehrabi, M., Eskandarieh, S., Khodadost, M., Sadeghi, M., Nikfarjam, A., & Hajebi, A. (2016). The Impact of Social Structures on Deviant Behaviors: The Study of 402 High Risk Street Drug Users in Iran . Journal of Addict .
Oberschall, A. (1978). Theories of Social Conflict . Annual Review of Sociology , 4 (1), 291-315 .
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