Salmonella typhi or in simple words typhoid is a bacterial infection that is associated with fever. It is caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi bacteria that are mainly deposited in water. The bacterium after entering the body lives in the intestine and bloodstream of a person. While discussing the epidemiology of this disease, people living in developing countries that have improper sewage systems are more prone to get infected by this bacteria. This is because typhoid bacteria can live in dried sewage for weeks. According to the, WHO reports more than 20 million people to get infected with diseases every year. However, in most developed countries due to the improved condition, there has been a drastic reduction of people getting sick with typhoid (Wain J, 2019).
The typhoid is spread by the consumption of contaminated food or drinks. People who are infected with this disease also become carriers and can contaminate surrounding water through stool and urine that are a major source of bacteria. Even washing fruits and vegetables with contaminated water and eating them can cause typhoid. It has also been observed that infected people after the treatment harbors the bacteria in their intestine for years making them asymptomatic carriers. However, without proper care and precautionary measures, this disease can appear again.
Typically, the symptoms start appearing after 6 days of getting infected, yet sometimes it takes almost 30 days to appear. People infected with typhoid fever experience high fever associated with severe abdominal pain, headaches, and weakness. In severe cases, if not treated properly people can have severe intestinal bleeding that is life-threatening. To diagnose the diseases physicians usually suggest people take blood tests or stool and urine tests for S. typhi infection. Usually, antibiotics are prescribed to the patients having typhoid fever.
Typhoid fever can be prevented by taking some precautionary measures such as boiling water before drinking and washing vegetables and fruits. Also, eat only properly cooked food and avoid street foods. Maintaining oral hygiene is very important. Moreover, if a person is living or traveling to an underdeveloped country, then he or she must get a vaccine against typhoid that will prevent him or her from getting infected.
Wain J, e. (2019). Typhoid fever. - PubMed - NCBI. Retrieved 18 September 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25458731
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