Cathy A.
Cathy A.

How to Write Harvard Style Citation for Multiple Sources?

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Published on: Jun 26, 2020

Last updated on: Mar 21, 2024

Harvard Style Citation

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As college students, we are constantly faced with writing papers and finding reliable sources to back up our claims. In college, you will be required to cite your sources in a particular format. You're writing a paper and need to cite multiple sources. What do you do?

Harvard style citation is a format that can be used to reference materials in your paper, as well as an easy way to organize the information. There are two ways that you can do this: either with a parenthetical note or an in-text citation.

This blog post will show you how to use this type of citation for any paper you have coming up, so read on!

What is Harvard Style Citation?

Harvard citations are a way to say that you found this information from another article. You should put the author's name and date of publication in parenthesis at the end of what you said or quoted. The whole reference will be added to the list at the end of your paper also.

The references are arranged alphabetically. The last name of the author and date of publication is next to them. The Harvard-style paper doesn't have footnotes or endnotes, but it does have a list of references at the bottom.

It is the most popular format used in assignments and publications for humanities, natural, social, and behavioral sciences.

Components of Harvard Citation Style

“How do you cite Harvard style?”

This parenthetical system of referencing has two main components:

  • Harvard-Style Citation In-Text: In-text citations should be shown with the author's last name and the year of publication in brackets wherever you use another source.
  • Harvard-Style Citation Reference List: A list of all the books, websites, and other information that you used to do your project.

In-text citations are used to show when you have quoted or paraphrased a source. Your reference list is an alphabetized list of (full) Harvard citations for sources that you used in your work and where they can be found.

Some universities may also require you to provide a bibliography. This is a list of all the books or other sources that you have read about your research topic. It will show how much work you have done in preparing your paper.

How to Do Harvard Style Citations and Referencing?

“Does Harvard Use MLA or APA?”

Harvard citations are different from other referencing styles like APA, MLA, and Chicago style. They have their own distinct structure and referencing structure. Students often get confused when working on their Harvard-style papers and assignments because it's similar to the APA style.

By using Harvard style, you can cite and reference the following kinds of sources:

  • Press Releases
  • Religious Texts
  • Reports
  • Software
  • Broadcast
  • Conference Proceedings
  • Court Cases
  • Dictionary Entries
  • Films, DVDs, and Videos
  • Patents
  • Podcasts
  • Lectures and Presentations
  • In-Text References
  • List of References
  • Web pages and Blogs
  • Printed Books
  • Emails
  • Encyclopedia Articles
  • Government Publications
  • Interviews
  • Journal and Newspaper Article
  • Newspaper Article on a Website or Database
  • Print Magazines
  • eBooks and PDFs
  • Archived Content
  • Artwork

All of these sources are added in the Harvard-style paper. To fully understand them, please refer to the following sections and have a Harvard style citation guide on each type.

Tips for Writing In-text Harvard Style Citations

A reference can be used to tell who wrote the article. It is different from the list of references. The parenthesis is added at the end of quotes and paraphrased content. The last name of the author, date of publication, and page number are in Harvard-style citation after it.

They are shorter than the full references in the list at the end. For example:

  • Williams (2016, p. 200) explains………….
  • (Williams, 2016, p. 200)

Adding in-text is a way to make information easy to find. You can either put the complete reference at the end of the quote or you can paraphrase it. There are also other ways, but one way is to include a last name and year in a sentence.

Tips for Writing Harvard Style List of References

The list of references is at the end of the paper and it is ordered alphabetically. The Harvard reference includes the last name of the author, year, the title of the book or article, place where it was published, publisher, and page numbers.

A Harvard style citation example is:

  • Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s)

When you find information for your paper, you will want to make sure that it is credible and from a well-known organization. You will also want to make sure that the list of references is in the same format as the bibliography.

The reference list includes all of the sources used in your paper, while the bibliography includes all of the places where you found information.

Harvard Style Citation for Website and Blogs

Besides books, young people mostly find information on the internet. People put lots of information on websites. It is important to know how to use websites for research and reference.

When you do this, it is good to give credit (show where the information came from). If you are using a website with an author's name, you would say "Author Name, Year of Publication, Article title, Accessed date."

For Example:

Harvard Style Citation for Website and Blogs

Similarly, the blog post has this format. It includes the author's name, year of publication, title of the article or blog post, and the web link.

Harvard Style Citation for Website and Blogs

For Example:

Harvard Style Citation - Book

In your work, you will have to cite books. To do this, make sure that the book is recent and it is relevant to what you are writing about. For a book with a single author, list the name of the author followed by a comma and then the year of publication.

If there are multiple authors, list them in alphabetical order followed by their last name.

Examples of a single author are:

harvard style citation for books single author

Examples of a book for two or more authors are:

harvard style citation for books multiple authors

The Harvard citation for a chapter in a book is different from citing websites and books. When citing a chapter from a book, do it like this:

harvard style citation for books chapters

You can have more than one citation of the same author by listing it out with different dates. If they are all from this year, then list them in alphabetical order.

harvard style citation for books

For an edited book, include the author's name, last name, and initials of the editor. Put the title of the book and edition number next to it.

Harvard Style Citation - Journal Article and Newspaper

When you are in social sciences, politics, and mass communication classes and your topic is related to newspapers, it is important that you read articles. Others might also read what you wrote. You can use the guidelines for citations when writing papers on those topics.

When referencing a journal in Harvard style, use the following format:

harvard style citation journal article

When referencing a newspaper article in Harvard style, use the following format:

harvard style citation newspaper

Harvard Style Citation for a Newspaper Article on a Website or Database

Other than reading newspapers in print, you can find some newspapers on an online database or a website. To cite it in your paper, use the following citation style:

harvard style citation for a newspaper article on a website or database

Students prefer to use digital versions of content rather than print ones. Managing them is easier and there are more versions available.

Harvard Style Citation for Print Magazines

The citation and reference include the full name of the author, the year that it was published, and the name of the article. The volume and page number are included too.

Here are some examples:

harvard style citation for print magazines

You should only pick a magazine that was published in the last five years. This is because it has recent information. Students often find research and articles in magazines about social sciences or communication.

Harvard Style Citation for eBooks and PDFs

Ebooks and PDFs are sources of information. They are published by associations, so they are credible. When you cite these books or papers, you need to mention the author's name, the year it was published, how many editions there are, who published it, and where you can find it online.

You can use the following pattern to do this:

harvard style citation for ebooks and pdfs

The pattern is followed for PDFs and eBooks that students refer to in their papers and essays.

Harvard Style Citation for Archived Content

Archived content is information about events that happened before. You can find it at universities, government organizations, libraries, and historical societies. The records could include artifacts like historical diaries, manuscripts, letters, and other important records.

When you are writing about archived content or information you need to follow this pattern:

harvard style citation for archived content

Unlike books, papers that have been published, and research that must be no older than five to eight years old, archived information is really old. Students who study history and social sciences often quote from this archived material in their work.

Harvard Style Citation for Artwork

Artwork includes things like paintings, statues, and photographs. When we study art and literature, sometimes we need to refer to them to clarify our main theme. We usually cite them when we are proving a point about our work.

To cite artwork in the text of your paper you will need to use the following pattern:

harvard style citation for artwork

In a citation, put the artist's full name, the year of creation, what kind of medium it is (oil painting), where it was displayed, and a gallery or museum.

Harvard Style Citation for Broadcast

If you heard something from a radio or TV broadcast that you want to use in your paper, then there is a way to cite it. Students who study subjects like history, communications, and international relations find things on the radio and TV that they want to use in their papers.

For them, the Harvard referencing style has a set pattern for this. It is as follows:

Harvard Style Citation for Broadcast

This sentence is about the reference and citation. There are many things that you need to include in it. The name of the show, the year it was broadcast, whether it is a radio or TV program, the channel number, and the broadcaster.

Harvard Style Citation for Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings are made for one specific conference. They are usually made up of presentations and academic papers. These papers are used later on by other people in their writing.

The authors of these papers often give information about the conference itself, which is very helpful to other people who want to know more about it.

There are two kinds of conference proceedings: published and unpublished ones. Published ones will have a citation like this:

harvard style citation for conference proceedings published

Sometimes the cited conference proceeding is unpublished, but there is a recording or print version. To cite it, use the following pattern:

harvard style citation for conference proceedings unpublished

These conference proceedings are very helpful for the people who attend or write papers. They can refer back to them if they need more information.

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Harvard Style Citation for Court Cases

Researchers provide the Harvard citation format for court proceedings and case hearings. If you are studying law and looking to learn about this, we have explained it here in detail. Court proceedings and case hearings are used as examples or research evidence for students or researchers.

To cite a case proceeding or hearing in the Harvard style, follow the below format:

harvard style citation for court cases

All kinds of court cases follow a similar format.

Harvard Style Citation for Dictionary Entries

A dictionary is a book that has words that are hard to understand. The dictionary can be either in print or online. To cite a print dictionary, use the following structure:

harvard style citation for dictionary entries

Besides print, dictionaries are also used online. For an online dictionary entry, use the below pattern:

harvard style citation for online dictionary entries

These entries in the dictionary are used to explain difficult words so that readers can understand everything.

Harvard Style Citation for Films, DVDs and Videos

Films and DVDs are used as references for students who want to learn about filmmaking. They can be used as a reference for how certain things in the film are made and what they do. When citing a film or video, use the following format:

harvard style citation for films dvds and videos

When you use any kind of film, make sure that it is related to the topic. You should also use the right format for citing and referring to it.

Harvard Style Citation for Emails

Researchers add these emails when they want to add something personal or information that is only available by email. To cite this information, use the following reference pattern:

harvard style citation for emails

The formatting for emails is simple. It has the sender's name when they sent the email, and what it is about.

Harvard Style Citation for Encyclopedia Articles

An encyclopedia is a set of books about many different subjects. It has information on all sorts of things. You can find the name of the article by looking at the table of contents. To cite an article, you need to know what page it starts on and how long it is.

Here are some examples:

harvard style citation for encyclopedia articles

You could use this format for all the subjects and topics in the articles.

Harvard Style Citation for Government Publications

Government papers and publications are official documents that are saved and given out by government bodies such as local, state, and federal offices.

These documents can be used by people who research or study law to refer to certain laws or policies. If you want to cite a document like this, you should use the following format:

harvard style citation for government publications

Using this style, you can cite different official publications and documents.

Harvard Style Citation for Interviews

When citing an interview, follow the below pattern:

harvard style citation for Interviews

The style is the same for all interviews. You can use it for as many interviews as you would like to put on your paper.

Harvard Style Citation for Patents

A patent is an exclusive right given to people who want to share their invention or idea. They can prevent someone from using it without permission.

You should always cite a patent when you use it for your research if the person does not want to be in trouble. When you are citing a patent, follow this format:

harvard style citation for patents

The format is used for all the patents that are to be added in a paper that is written in Harvard style.

Harvard Style Citation for Podcasts

Podcasts are recordings that you can download onto your phone or computer. They are usually online and available at many audio sources. People use these to do research for school, but they can also be used for entertainment.

When citing a podcast, use the following pattern:

harvard style citation for podcasts

Citing podcasts is not a common practice. But when you cite them in a Harvard-style paper, you just need to follow the pattern that they do.

Harvard Style Citation for Lectures and Presentations

Students studying in colleges and universities often cite their teachers’ lectures and class presentations. These are the most related to the main topic. To cite them, use this style:

harvard style citation for lectures and presentations

Citing these lectures shows the teacher that you were listening in class and leaves a good impression.

Harvard Style Citation for Press Releases

Press releases are written for people to read. They are the point of contact between the company and people who want information about it. If you are citing a press release, you can use this pattern:

harvard style citation for press releases

Companies post their press releases on digital platforms. These are sites that people can visit. To cite and refer to it, write in the following pattern:

harvard style citation for press releases on digital platforms

If you want your paper to be more credible, add press releases.

Harvard Style Citation for Religious Texts

When you are writing about religion, you can cite books to back your claims. You should follow this pattern:

harvard style citation for religious texts

Using correct formatting is important when writing a document or paper. It is equally important with religious texts, too.

Harvard Style Citation for Reports

Citing reports is an important part of writing a paper. It makes the paper more credible and shows how much research you have done on the topic. To cite a report, use this format:

harvard style citation for reports

Citing different reports is a good way to prove your claims and points in your paper.

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Harvard Style Citation for Software

Citing software in academic papers is important. If you are studying computer science or software engineering, it is important for you to understand everything about software. When citing software use the following pattern:

harvard style citation for software

So, instead of relying on a Harvard-style citation generator or taking help from a Harvard-style citation machine, you can read this guide. Take help from the guidelines and examples given below to cite references in your paper easily.

Cathy A.


Cathy A. (Marketing)

Cathy has been been working as an author on our platform for over five years now. She has a Masters degree in mass communication and is well-versed in the art of writing. Cathy is a professional who takes her work seriously and is widely appreciated by clients for her excellent writing skills.

Cathy has been been working as an author on our platform for over five years now. She has a Masters degree in mass communication and is well-versed in the art of writing. Cathy is a professional who takes her work seriously and is widely appreciated by clients for her excellent writing skills.

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