Nova A.
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3 Different Types Of Argument

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Published on: Apr 17, 2019

Last updated on: Dec 29, 2022

Types Of Argument

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When writing an argumentative essay, you can structure your argument in three different ways. These are the Toulmin argument model, the classical argument model, and the Rogerian argument model.

Learn these three different types of arguments in this blog.

Types of Argument

There are three different types of argument: Toulmin, Rogerian and classical argument. These types of arguments are used to structure an argumentative essay. While structuring an argument, you can follow any of these types of arguments. If you want, you can combine them and make your own type of argument.

Below, these types are discussed in detail to help you understand how you can use them in your essay.

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Toulmin Argument

The Toulmin argumentative model works well when there is no clear truth or a real solution to a problem. This type of argument presents only one side of the argument and doesn’t consider the other side of the argument. It takes a strong stand on the topic and proves it right.

It works with six elements to analyze an argument. These elements are

  • Claim: It is the statement that the author wants its audience to believe.
  • Grounds: These are the facts, reasoning, or evidence on which the claim is based.
  • Warrant: It links the ground to the claim.
  • Backing: Gives additional support for the claim.
  • Qualifier: It is the degree of certainty that tells to what extent the claim is true.
  • Rebuttal: Acceptance of opposing views where the claim may not hold true.

Here is how you can structure your argumentative essay while following the Toulmin argument model:

1. Introduction:

    1. Hook statement that grabs readers attention
    2. Introduce the problem
    3. Introduce the main claim

2. Body:

    1. Provide evidence, facts, reasoning - The Grounds- in support of the claim
    2. Explore warrants; connect ground with the claim.
    3. Back the grounds with logical facts to show that the claim is logically sound.
    4. Discuss the opposing point of view and provide a rebuttal

3. Conclusion:

    1. Summarize the whole argument
    2. Discuss the implications of the claim
    3. Close the discussion with an evocative thought

Rogerian Argument

As the Toulmin model provides a strong stance on the topic or problem and stands by it, the Rogerian model tries to find a middle ground. It is merely a kind of two-sided debate where the writer tries to go beyond the winner or loser side and find a middle ground.

The Rogerian argument model works with the following objectives:

  • Consider both sides of the argument, and understand the complexities of the argument.
  • Acknowledging that both sides could be right in a particular situation
  • Do not seek a winner or loser side of the argument.
  • Works on building an understanding between opposing viewpoints
  • Discover a mutually acceptable solution
  • Acknowledge that a claim could be looked at from different standpoints.

Here is the structure of the Rogerian argument model:

1. Introduction:

    1. Introduce the problem
    2. Acknowledge the opposing viewpoints and provide a fair assessment of them
    3. Provide your side of the argument
    4. State your thesis statement that specifies the position you took regarding the essay subject

2. Body:

    1. Provide evidence, facts, and reasoning that support your thesis
    2. Carefully present your side of the claim in a way that does not dismiss the opposing viewpoints.
    3. Bring both sides -supporting and opposing sides- together to find a middle ground.
    4. Help the reader to see the benefits of the middle ground.

3. Conclusion:

    1. Summarize the whole argument
    2. Remind the reader about the middle ground and its benefits
    3. Recognize that more work could be done

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Classical Argument

It is the most common type of argument developed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. This model aims to convince the audience of something. In this model, ethos, pathos, and logos play a crucial role in persuading the audience to believe in the writer’s perspective.

The classical or Aristotelian model works on the following assumption:

  • State the writer’s side of the argument
  • Consider the opposing side, analyze it, and refute it with the help of evidence.
  • Support your claim with facts and logic to prove it right
  • Tell the audience the benefits of accepting your side of the argument.

Here is the structure of the classical argument model. Notice that the body section is divided into three parts: narration, confirmation, and refutation. Check out how these three parts made up a whole body section:

1. Introduction:

    1. Introduce your topic
    2. State your side of the argument
    3. Establish goodwill and rapport with the reader
    4. Develop your thesis statement that tells the main point of your claim

2. Narration:

    1. Provide a brief background information
    2. Provide information that is necessary to understand the circumstances that produced the argument
    3. Set up the platform for what-if’s type of questions

3. Confirmation:

    1. Explain your claim and tell why it should be accepted
    2. Present evidence in a logical order that supports the thesis statement
    3. Provide clear evidence that proves your side of the argument is right
    4. Address the opposing side of the argument

4. Refutation:

    1. Look at the opposing viewpoints
    2. Allow as much of the opposing viewpoints as possible
    3. Refute the opposition one point at a time

5. Conclusion:

    1. The last section of the essay sums up everything
    2. Remind the audience about your side of the claim
    3. Summarize the key points of your argument
    4. Show the audience that your claim is best at meeting the circumstances

Standard Types of Argument in Logic

There are two basic types of argument in logic, and they are deductive and inductive arguments. Every argument may have one or more premises but only one conclusion. Both premises and conclusions are truth bearers, either capable of being true or false. Let’s discuss the types of argument in logic:

Inductive Argument

An inductive argument is a type of argument where if the premises are true, then the conclusion is most likely to be true. The strength or success of this argument is a matter of degree. The probability of the premises supports the truth of the conclusion.

An inductive argument is said to be strong or weak. If the premises are assumed to be true, then there is a probability that the conclusion is also true. And if that’s the case, the argument is strong. If not, then the argument is weak.

Deductive Argument

A deductive argument asserts that the conclusion’s truth is dependent on the logical consequence of the premises. The conclusion follows the certainty of the premises. A deductive argument is usually said to be a truth-preserving argument.

The deductive argument is said to be valid or invalid. If the premises are assumed to be true, would the conclusion follow the certainty? If yes, then the argument is valid. If not, then the argument is invalid.

5 Types Of Argument Claim

There are five types of argument claim that can be selected while making a claim in your essay. They are:

1. Fact: It states whether the argument is true or false?

2. Definition: It states the dictionary definition or real meaning of the argument.

3. Value: What is the value of the argument? Is it good or bad?

4. Cause: What caused the claim to happen?

5. Policy: What can we do about it? Or what must be done about it?

Now that you have learned the different types of arguments, you can easily structure your argument. However, if you are still confused and think you cannot structure a strong argument, get help from

Our proficient essay writer is always available to help you with any type of academic writing. Place your order now and release the stress.

Nova A.


Nova A. (Literature, Marketing)

Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

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