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Q 1. The area of psychology depends upon various theories and schools of thoughts that define different human behaviors and the actions and reactions to a different phenomenon. Same is the case for the subject of philosophy. Both these subjects attempt to answer different questions regarding human actions and reactions in various situations. In an attempt to answer these questions, both the subjects have developed a number of perspectives and schools of thought that tend to provide different explanations to the kinds of behavior than individual exhibits in different situations. In this respect, two theories hold great importance, both in the areas of psychology and philosophy. These theories or schools of thoughts are known as behaviorist approach or perspective and Constructive approach or perspective. Both these perspectives have served as guiding lights for the psychologist in the explanation of the nature of different individuals.
Behaviorism or behaviorist approach refers to the learning perspective that all the behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs when an individual works and interacts with the environment. This theory states that the behavior can be studied in the case of interactions with other individuals and the society without keeping in consideration of the internal mental states. On the other hand, there is a constructive approach that forms its basis on the personal experiences and observations of every person. The theory states that an individual builds its perspectives or understandings of the world bases on his or her experiences that he has faced in the world. A person reflects on their own learning and experiences and then builds up and understanding or perspective of the world in which they live. Based on the above-mentioned explanations of learning perspectives, it can be clearly seen that the major difference lies in the use of thoughts experiences and memories.
Q 2. Erik Homburger Erikson was a German-born American psychologist and psychoanalyst who is known for his tremendous contributions in various areas of psychology. Erikson presented most of his contributions in the area of psychological development of an individual. Erikson is also known as the pioneer or coiner of the term, identity-crisis. Erik Erikson is famous for identifying and presenting eight stages of psychological development in an individual. He argued that while growing up, individual passes through eight necessary stages of development that play a very major role in the learning and development of that individual. These eight stages have been elaborated below:
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
It can be clearly seen that Erikson focused on presenting the various psychological stages of development in a way of comparison. All the eight stages have been described in a way that a positive psychological state has been compared with a negative one. The reason behind the presentation of developmental stages is that Erikson was of the view that every individual goes through a psychological crisis in their life when they are growing up. In fact, this process goes on for their whole life, as the process of growth goes on all their life. The approach of something vs. something on the basis of this rationale.
I have seen many individuals going through all these stages of development when they were growing up but the closes observation was my own brother. I have observed various psychological changes in him since he was born and as he is growing up. The most significant change in his personality or the developmental stage that I have observed in him is industry vs. inferiority.
Classroom management is an art that should be learned by every teacher no matter what level they are teaching at. These skills come in handy at every level, whether a teacher is teaching at a primary level or university level, these skills deem very important and even have a capability to shape up and define the whole career of a person. The term classroom management refers to a wide range of skills and techniques adopted by the teachers and professors in order to keep their students organized, attentive, focused, on task and academically productive during a class. The classroom management strategies help a teacher not only to have control over the whole class but also become a popular instructor among his or her students. Some of these strategies have been elaborated below:
Students always feel more connected to a teacher who encourages participation in the class. It motivates the student to perform better and present their ideas in a better way.
Offer Praise for Good Performance
A good teacher should provide positive feedback on a regular basis for good behavior and performance. Praising a student in the form of verbal and non-verbal form improves their confidence and boosts up their self-esteem.
Hand Over Tangible Rewards
Providing the student with tangible rewards also boost up their confidence in the teacher and develops their interest in the subject as well.
Address Bad Behavior on Urgent Basis
A good teacher should not hesitate to address bad or faulty behavior especially if a student fails to comply with any of the documented rules. The best strategy for this is to confront the student in private. Alert them about the bad side of breaking the rules in general and then the importance of following the specific rule.
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