The training program aims at explaining the development and multimodal changes experienced by children to co-workers and parents. The four multimodal changes experienced by kids include emotional development, development of social bonds, behaviorism and cognitive development. Emotions are generated since the time of birth that is apparent in the form of crying or laughing. The emotions of anger or sadness are exhibited at the age of six months. By the age of nine months, kids exhibit emotions of fear and anxiety. Social development is linked to parents efforts. Children having more active parents are more likely to learn about the social environment. synchrony is a powerful learning experience that builds a connection of the child with the external environment and people. The psychosocial theory explains behaviorism is the result of how parents reinforce or punish their children. “Behaviorists believe that parents who respond joyously to every glimmer of a grin will have children with a sunny disposition” CITATION Kat164 \l 1033 (Berger). The cognitive development reflects the beliefs and perceptions are the results of experiences and circumstances.
Postpartum depression is a moods disorder linked to the child's birth. It affects the emotions and behaviors of children. The common moods associated with this disorder include sadness, anger, and feeling of hopelessness, worthlessness and depression. The history of the mother's depression before pregnancy or during pregnancy increases the likelihood of developing the postpartum disorder. Such children exhibit sadness, limited social activity and are introverts. They prefer to maintain distance from the people. martial conflict is also a prominent cause of this disorder. Children who are victims of postpartum depression face difficulties in their social and psychological development. the probability of developing this syndrome is from birth to the twelfth year.
The five elements that affect child growth during the first two years include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), trust vs. mistrust, stranger wariness and autonomy vs. self-doubt. SIDS refers to unexplained deaths occurring to children during sleep. The infants mostly die in cribs while the reason remains unidentified. The causes of this disorder include low birth weight, brain defects and respiratory infections. Brain defects undermine a child's ability to control breathing when they arise from sleep. Low weight also increases the risks of SIDS. This is more likely to occur during the first to fourth month of childbirth. Trust vs. mistrust is the first stage of development according to Erikson. Caregivers that fulfil the needs of children develop trust. Children who have a positive relationship with their parents learn to develop trust. Compared to this the parents that fail to address the needs of their children are more likely to promote feelings of distrust. This stage starts at the beginning of birth and continues to exist for the whole year.
Stranger wariness reflects the situation in which the child exhibits a feeling of discomfort in the presence of a stranger. They are unable to connect to the people who are unfamiliar to them. Stranger wariness occurs at the age of 10 months to 13 months. Such children prefer to maintain distance from strangers and exhibits fears in their presence. Autonomy vs. self-doubt is the second stage of psychosocial development in which self-control depends on a child's ability to exercise autonomy. Children who experience self-doubt are unable to exhibit self-control. These kids depend more on parents and are unable to perform simple tasks CITATION Ale122 \l 1033 (Kasper). This stage prevails during the age of 2 to 3 years. Autonomy has positive impacts on child personality and development. While self-doubt undermined the child's independence and personality growth.
The five prominent elements that influence early childhood development include; intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, gender difference, parenting styles, corporal punishment and maltreatment. Psychology identifies intrinsic motivation aroused by inner reward. The motivation for performing an action is for satisfying self. Extrinsic motivation works in the opposite direction that means actions taken for an external reward. The internal mechanism of tension arousal convinces an individual to act. Drive reflects internal state of tension such as thirst or hunger drive. Motivation becomes apparent during the age of 9 to 12 years. Gender differences during infancy exhibit that the boys and girls learn sex-linked behaviors. These differences are linked to cognitive behaviors such as girls develop behaviors like empathy while boys develop aggression. These differences have significant impacts on child development. The children start learning about gender difference from the age of two years. The common parenting styles used by parents include authoritarian and permissive parenting. In an authoritative style, the parents reinforce punishments and use strict rule for making children disciplined CITATION Dan14 \l 1033 (Lichter, Sassler and Turner). While permissive style gives more authority to the children in which they are free to do anything. They lack discipline and do not follow rules. Parenting style affects the child from 4 months to entire childhood.
Corporal punishment means physical punishment experienced by a child during infancy. This has negative impacts on overall development. Physical injury or emotional harm has detrimental impacts on child personality. They develop feelings of fear, aggression and hatred. Corporal punishment has negative impacts because the child stops trusting parents. Children that experience maltreatment during early childhood is more likely to develop a destructive personality. This includes physical, psychological or emotional abuse. All abuses have deteriorating impacts on the child.
The overall assessment of early childhood development indicates that early interaction of children with parents and the surrounding environment influence their behaviors.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Berger, Kathleen Stassen. Invitation to the Life Span. Worth Publishers, 2016.
Kasper, Alex G. “Shyness in the Classroom and its Impacts on Learning and Academic Functions.” University of Wisconsin-Stout (2012).
Lichter, Daniel, Sharon Sassler and Richard Turner. "Cohabitation, post-conception unions, and the rise in nonmarital fertility." Social Science Research 47 (2014): 134-147.
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