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1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of case studies?
The main benefits of case studies include the chance to study unique cases and reviewing specific cases in detail. The detailed analysis of cases can be extremely helpful in furthering research and understanding of a specific disorder or mental illness. Another advantage of a case study is that they provide insights into certain unique cases that are rare occurrences and provide a golden opportunity to understand new problems.
One of the disadvantages of case studies is that the results cannot be generalized because the sample unit is limited in number. Another disadvantage is that case studies are mostly subjective in nature. This means that researchers follow their own research methodologies that might not be in cohort with other researchers, so the element of objectivity is lost in case studies.
2. What is the difference between a cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study? What advantages do longitudinal studies have over cross-sectional studies? What are the limitations of longitudinal studies?
The cross-sectional study focuses only on one point in time to collect data and infer results whereas longitudinal study focuses on certain individuals or group through extended periods of time. Cross-sectional studies focus on larger groups and as such have a larger sample unit but longitudinal studies emphasize on smaller groups. The advantage of longitudinal study is that it provides a much more detailed and thorough analysis than a cross-sectional study. The results of a longitudinal study are much more accurate and can be relied upon with greater certainty. The limitations of longitudinal case studies include the elevated cost of research as well as greater consumption of time. Perhaps the most crucial limitation is that it includes a much smaller sample size.
3. What are the strengths and limitations of correlational studies?
Correlational studies are extremely useful in conducting research about defining the relationship between variables. They are particularly helpful in determining the strength of a relationship between variables: the extent to which one variable is correlated to the other. Another advantage of a correlational study is that it can indicate whether further research is required in a certain area. This is because the strength of the relationship between variables can clearly demonstrate whether more research is essential for the topic.
The main limitation of the correlational study is that it does not show causality between variables. This means that a correlational study will show that two variables are correlated but it will not be evident whether one cause the other or not. Another limitation is that these studies consume a lot of time to complete.
4. What is internal validity? What can researchers do to safeguard the internal validity of experiments?
Internal validity is the assurance in an experiment that the changes in a certain variable only occur due to the variable against which correlation or causation is being determined. If there some other factors that affect a variable that are not in the scope of the research, then the experiment cannot be considered internally valid.
One of the threats to internal validity is the characteristic of demand. This implies that participants may alter responses once they discover the goals of the research. A double-blind experiment is a method that is employed to diminish the threat to internal validity. This is a process which both of the groups, the control group, and the experimental group are unaware of their own identity: they do not know which group they belong to.
Another threat to internal validity is selection bias. This is especially pertinent because this can alter the results of an experiment significantly. To reduce this threat to internal validity, researchers must select groups at random to ensure the most accurate results. This random assignment will ensure that each participant has an equal chance of being selected for a group.
5. Briefly describe (don't just list) the 6 basic rights of research participants.
Respect for the participants is a basic right of research participants as their autonomy should not be compromised under any circumstances. Another basic right of participants is beneficence as maximization of benefits and minimization of losses should be the goal. The third basic right is non-maleficence: no harm should come to the participant as a result of the research process. One more fundamental right of research participants is the provision of justice. This implies that there should not be any discrimination between participants. Moreover, the participant should be made fully aware of the associated risks of the research and any potential harmful effect on the participant. Finally, the research participants have a right to know what exactly the research is being conducted for so they realize the importance of the research or lack thereof.
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