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Parents as a role model, attitudes, cognitive beliefs, and parenting style create an impact on the general socialization of their children. Parenting styles are known as being different from parenting practices. The children having a high risk of anxiety disorders due to tiger parents. Different research studies reflect a parenting styles "topology of behavior and attitudes that describe the interaction of parents with their child in domains of parenting" and discuss the general acceptance, typical interaction or warmth with the child as a parenting style example. Parenting practices are more dependent on the context and they are less like traits. With all children, parents may use similar styles but have changed parenting practices with every child. There are two dimensions of parenting styles, demand for control and parental acceptance which are used to form four typologies of parental practices. The first topology is authoritative (high control-high acceptance), the second one is authoritarian (high control-low acceptance), third is permissive-indulgent (low control-high acceptance and forth one is disengaged- neglectful (low control-low acceptance). Authoritarian parenting style as compared to authoritative parenting style generally leads to worse social, psychological and achievement outcomes in adolescents and children (Fuemmeler et, al. pp. 441). Studies show that lower median income parents are ineffective because they have to spend less time with their children and they are spending an insufficient amount of money to make successful grooming of their children. Research shows that the sample having 30 % of parents from the above median level of income. Excepting the level of education of parents, tiger parenting is less effective as compared to children who have supportive parents. The Chinese immigrant mothers can't help their adolescent child in homework because they have some social commitments. It is also found that the immigrant parents children have faced fewer economic resources and due to their low socioeconomic status, they are unable to provide sufficient amount of money and facilities to their adolescent children which help in their outperform development (the study was conducted on 90% immigrant parents).
During Schoolwork and extracurricular activities of children, there is a common observation that Asian American parents have mostly used authoritarian behaviors and they excessively challenge their children both at home and academically. Aggressiveness used by parents to discipline their children and the stress on the significance of academic achievement and family obligations use by these parents are recently known as Tiger parents. Relatively less affection and warmth showed by these parents towards their children and their values at running household are not democratic. The tiger parenting has raised a question that whether it is appropriate to exert control over their children or these practices of parents are creating a positive or negative impact on the development of their children. The research will refuse to support these concerns through empirical evidence. To examine the parenting profile the study uses the Chinese American parents and adolescents longitudinal data that may specifically exist within this group, and the outcomes of an adolescent may be linked with every evolving parenting profile (Kim, Yeong et, al. pp.7).
Research shows that parenting style, as considered by dimensions of behavioral control and observed parental acceptance is linked with changes in BMI from the phase of adolescence to young adulthood (aged 13-19 years). The result shows that the largest percentage of parents have found supportive of each data collection wave. It is also found that the children with having tiger parents have score low grades as compared to children having supportive parents. The best development outcomes have found in children who have supportive parents. Harsh parents children have found the worst development outcomes. Children having easy-going parents are shows more potential outcomes as compared to children having harsh parents. The parents who use permissive style having children with less self-control but high confidence. General parenting style and child and adolescent diet are evaluated in research and risk of obesity have concluded mixed results. Behavioral control and authoritative parenting have been linked with greater intake of vegetables and fruits in some studies but they are not linked in other studies. There is no association found in some studies of BMI, parenting style and weight outcome. Research shows that children have a high risk of obesity whose parents don't care about them well. The relationship among parenting style in a phase of childhood and adolescence and its weight-related consequences at the time of adulthood have not examined. Research of weight-related outcomes and parenting styles from the diverse community like ethnicity, race, and gender have been insufficiently examined. Recently, the permissive parenting style is highly associated with physical activity in boys but not in girls. By creating groups on the two dimensions of control and acceptance from high (over the median) or low (below the median) in traditional parenting style has been quantified. The individual at extremely over the median are equated with those who are slightly over the median. Mixture modeling of latent class modeling data-driven methods have not been applied on research previously to identify the parenting style topologies but to find the latent population subgroups these methods have been applied in other fields (Fuemmeler et, al. pp. 441).
Development niche framework found that the child of culturally constructed environment involves in social and physical settings in which the child lives, it involves psychology of the caretakers and culturally controlled customs of childcare. These three components function together as a system, but they are embedded functionally in the larger culture. Young children of immigrant parents have a unique impact on immigrant context, acculturative experiences, traditional parenting customs, and larger stream culture parenting values. The parents are likely to aware of some obvious impact of their traditional cultural values when they migrate to a new country on child development socialization goals, family relationship, and child-rearing practices. Immigrants parenting acculturation involves continues negotiation among the values and practices of the heritage and host culture. Researchers rarely ask parents about their parenting values and practices of the heritage and host culture. In the recent decade, the United State has a large number of immigrants make it important to learn about these families. Cultural variations are important to understand for those mothers who are immigrants that which culture should be adopted for parenting. This understanding is difficult because of the lack of knowledge about the culture and it may create confusion, misinterpretation, and misunderstanding about new culture parenting. The knowledge of parenting is important so that educators, psychologists, and practitioners can efficiently help acculturing families and support their healthy development of children and wellbeing (Cheah, Charissa, Leung & Zhou, pp.43).
Multigroup framework of LGM analysis was used to match six groups of female Hispanic, female black, female white, male Hispanic, male black, male white. Group membership moderating effects have evaluated by using this method. Significant group differences test of the quadratic function, slope, and intercept of the unconditional LGM of BMI has performed an initial analysis. Series of nested models for testing of equality parameters (slope, intercept and quadratic function for the first analysis and variable of parenting style for second analysis) was used to find the statistical significance of the moderating effect of race, gender and ethnicity across the various groups. The results show that Hispanic and black females adolescent at the age of 15 is more havier as compared to White female adolescents and they have a low rate of BMI trajectories. The black male adolescent has also found heavier as compared to White male adolescent and their BMI rate increases more gradually. The relationship between black and white adolescent have found almost the same except their BMI rate (Cheah, et, al. pp.43).
Parents having positive parenting dimensions has successful and well-adjusted parents and they always come out on top as compared to children having parents with negative parenting dimensions. The parents who use supportive parenting technique are more encouraged because their adolescent children show more potential outcomes. The good parenting strategies include to monitor the activities and whereabouts of children and allowing children to be independent, parents should try to stop yelling and shouting at their children, comparing them with other children, blaming their adolescent children on their past mistakes and expecting unquestioned obedience.
Western parents encourage their adolescent children true passion, respect the individuality of their child, provide their child with a nurturing environment and supporting the choices of their children. Chinese think that the best way to take care of your adolescent child is to prepare them for future, arming them with skills, enhance their inner confidence, work habit and enhance their capabilities that no one can take away.One of the most important obligations of parenting is to make an adolescent child an educated person and make him able to contribute well in society. The studies have found rigorous Chinese tiger parents with having very high goals for their adolescent children academic achievement. They are expected that when one goal is achieved the new one is immediately set by them and there is no break in demand of parents which create a bad psychological effect on the health of the children. Some times they are unable to bear that burden of stress and they collapse. Among Chinese American, Tiger parents have shown the extensive level of shaming as compared to supportive and easy-going parents. Chinese parenting style shows that tiger parenting has high-level f shaming but they also have a high level of warmth and love as well. Some of the traits of authoritarians have been used by Chinese parents but they are having selfless love for their adolescent children. Chinese tiger parents adolescent children especially teenager lose their sense of agency or sense of control which create a bad effect on their motivation and also affects their academic-related outcomes.
The adolescence children have low self-motivation due to parenting bribes and threats and they also suffer from the anxiety and other side effects of the high-stress environment. The children are unable to bear this stress and they may become a rebel and also entirely giving up on healthy goals in their young age. The researchers interview both child and parents to access the mental health of adolescent child having instructive parents. The results found that high level of self-criticism has correlated to a high level with anxiety and stress.
The studies concluded that the stress and tiger parenting method is correlated with anxiety, depression and high mental issues. There is a long run high risk of obesity in adolescent children having authoritarian parents. There is a need for general parenting styles which helps to incorporate strategies related to food and eating habit of adolescent children. The cultural attitudes and beliefs create an impact on specific parenting style and parents need careful attention towards appropriate culturally tailored parenting styles (Fuemmeler et, al. pp. 447). Through qualitative interview present study address the Chinese immigrant mothers parenting beliefs. The Mothers have used both techniques of parenting from both cultures and create a balance in the development of their child regardless of making familism and relatedness in their parenting. In the US, Chinese mothers are more flexible in accommodating and balancing cultural techniques of parenting across different area to promote their adolescent child development. The Chinese immigrant mother faces complex dynamic challenges to adjust to the new culture. The results also found that immigrant mothers are facing financial issues in the development of their children and they also face lower performance outcomes. The tiger parenting is increased in father as compared to mothers and performance outcomes of adolescent children are relatively low having tiger parents. The children having supportive and easy-going parents have experienced the best performance outcomes. The children having supportive parents have scored high grades as compared to children having tiger parents. Adolescent children face a high risk of mental issues, anxiety, and stress due to Tiger parenting and children hiding their emotional expressions from them which may affect child psychological and mental health.
Parenting style has classified into four groups which include authoritarian, permissive, disengaged and balanced. There is a greater increase in BMI in adolescent children having authoritative and disengaged parenting styles. Research also shows that for child-rearing Chinese parents and Chinese American tend to implement supportive approach over tiger parenting. Parents who put pressure on their children can damage their self-belief and confidence and it has increased over time. The overall happiness can be affected by the approach of parents that everything has to be perfect and nothing is good enough ever. The parents use strict rule and tiger parenting for the academic success of their child and because of this stress child is suffering from high stress and anxiety.
Cheah, Charissa SL, Christy YY Leung, and Nan Zhou. "Understanding “tiger parenting” through the perceptions of Chinese immigrant mothers: Can Chinese and US parenting coexist?." Asian American Journal of Psychology 4.1 (2013): 30.
Fuemmeler, Bernard F., et al. "Parenting styles and body mass index trajectories from adolescence to adulthood." Health Psychology 31.4 (2012): 441.
Kim, Su Yeong, et al. "Does “tiger parenting” exist? Parenting profiles of Chinese Americans and adolescent developmental outcomes." Asian American Journal of Psychology 4.1 (2013): 7.
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