The Prevalence Of Low Self-esteem In An Intellectually Disabled Forensic Population Journal Of Intellectual Disability Research
Final Article Review
Johnson, P. (2012). The prevalence of low self-esteem in an intellectually disabled forensic population Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(3), 317–325. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2011.01447.x
What is the article specifically addressing?
This article is a study that is quantitative to measure low self-esteem as it relates to individuals who have intellectual disabilities and as a part of the forensic population. The target of this article is to measure low self esteem and for that it explains what they are measuring under low self-esteem. Self-esteem is an assessment by a person of himself, his abilities, qualities and place among other people. More than just self-confidence. It is related to how much we value ourselves, and self-confidence relates to our actions and behavior.
How does this article relate to your selected topic?
The topic, I have selected for the final project is a personal topic to me because I have Cerebral Palsy. I decided to research more about individuals who have disabilities that are involved in being part of being incarcerated because of the crimes those individuals with disabilities specifically how individuals who have disabilities struggle with having self-esteem is low. I struggle personally with low self-esteem. I choose this topic because I want to help others who also struggle with low self-esteem and discovering effective ways in managing these challenges. Ever since, I was teen, I had a low self-esteem . I am considering doing an internship in my local county jail with incrassated youth as well as individuals who have intellectual disabilities. I believe in the importance of discovering effective coping skills early in life is essential for individuals who struggle with low self-esteem. I also believe that the basis of self-confidence lies in adequate self-esteem, which allows you to be confident in your ability to do something, behave appropriately in a specific situation, and cope with the task. With adequate self-esteem, the level of a person’s claims (desires, goals, requirements for oneself and others, etc.) corresponds to the level of his abilities (inclinations, talents, intelligence, education, position, upbringing, volitional qualities, physical abilities, etc.) .
Did the article contain research?
This article contains a research and for research interview technique is used to get data based on two instrument the adapted Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the adapted Evaluative Beliefs Scale during interviews. For more data lie age of interviewee , gender, placement, index offence etc. taken from the hospital data.
The sample consist of 44 men having mild intellectual disabilities. Interviewed method is used in this study. The two structured instruments were used to assess the low self-esteem among interviewed clients and routinely recorded clinical data used by computer system of hospital.
What data was used? What instruments, if any, were used to collect data?
The sample consist of 44 men having mild intellectual disabilitiesto get data on the basis of two structured instruments will gathered. Two self-rating measures used in this study to get data from participants related for self-esteem. The first one is the adapted six-item scale known as Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the other one is adapted Evaluative Beliefs Scale.
The questionnaire was created and used as one-dimensional, although, conducted later, factor analysis revealed two independent factors: self - esteem and self-esteem : the higher one, the lower the other. Self-esteem assessment may be the result of depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms; self-esteem is the cause and effect of active communication, leadership, a sense of interpersonal security. Both factors directly depend on the attitude to the test of his parents in childhood. The Rosenzweig questionnaire consists of 10 judgments, for each of which four gradations of answers are proposed, encoded in points according to the proposed scheme.
There are 3 hypotheses used in this study. The hypothesis 1 states that self-esteem need to be considered as low among intellectually disabled forensic population. But both scale assessment show high or moderate scores so this hypothesis cannot be predicable.
The second hypothesis states that IDFP engage in sexual or fire setting offense and high prevalence can be predicted among low self-esteem individuals. However the result of this study shows that the 64% participants were engage in either one or both offenses, but the second part of this hypothesis was not proved as the score stays high or moderate, so it is as well not proved.
The hypothesis 3 proposed that individual with IDFP and who suffered from interrupted attachments would have lower self-esteem. It is not supported as scores were high.
What were some of the conclusions, if any, to the research in this article?
In the result , the analysis of three hypothesis used to get the assessment of self-esteem of each participant on the basis of prevalence rate, type of participant offending behavior ( from hospital data) and the result of data provided by two instruments.
Self Esteem is extremely complex personal struggle for several individuals who have lower self-esteem with an intellectual There are several factors that play a critical part in the self-esteem of individuals with lower self-esteem. CBT or cognitive behavioral therapy greatly affected how individuals who struggled with lower self-esteem by challenging negative thoughts and beliefs by challenging individuals to change their negative thoughts and about themselves as well as their beliefs around them.
REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF ARTICLE
What references did the author use in this article?
The author P. J Johnson employed several references that supported the subject of lower self-esteem with individuals with intellectual disabilities in the population of individuals who are incarcerated. Academic journal, peer reviewed journals utilized a total of 25 cited references from different time period including 1996-2006. All the references are in APA format.
The author utilized several books, journals, article reviews that were utilized to compose my final article review. The authors chose to focus on their resources that the author cited their references utilizing both in-text and stated on their references page were utilized effectively and correctly. This article demonstrates the author have a clear knowledge of what categorizes their work as scholarly.
Was the article reliable and valid? Explain.
The article is reliable. The author completed a second experiment with the same procedures, and data as well as utilized the same participants as the first experiment. Some of the previous studies show low self esteem among intellectually disabled community population (Dagnan & Waring 2004) and also in the prison population (Jacques & Chason 1977).
It is also found that there is no evidence of previous studies related to intellectually disabled forensic population, so the significance of this study increase as it is done first times. There is a research gap in previous studies and in this study, so researcher handle it very carefully to make it a valid study .
Was this article well written? Thoughtful and reflective?
This article was insightful and adequately written. The author provided previous research regarding their topic, which gave the reader a much-needed background despite if they have any knowledge of forensic identification and expert testimony. The authors clearly stated their hypothesis, method, and procedures taken within their two experiments. Mrs. Johnson writing, and her use of terminology were easy to comprehend with important information around the forensic population who has intellectual disabilities. I believe this article was very thought out and provided solid facts backed up by solid references and statistical data .
What were the limitations in this article? Any variables?
There were four limitations addressed throughout the study.
The first limitation of this study had only personally met roughly 70 percent of participates were not met before the study began.
The researcher made no effort to control the participates ages in numerous areas of services.
The researcher could not compare between ages of clients.
Data was regularly utilized regarding various subjects being not accurate regarding care at a boarding school because of these adults have disruptive attachment disorder. .
The dependent variable throughout this article highlighted is the Rosenberg Self Esteem scale. This scale was adapted from Evaluative Belief Scale. Additional data was followed and presented that demonstrated repeated design that had variables that were independent variables incorporating innumerable reflections between medium and low parts of service that were protected. The offenses have greatly affected attachments in children not forming attachments that were not secure.
I believe that the sample size is a limitation of this study because of the sample size being small. I would be interested to know if this study was repeated if the same conclusions would be reached with a sample size that are larger. What other thoughts or comments do you have related to this article?
The. section that I enjoyed learning more about is Bowlby attachment theory. He elaborated on various types of attachment theory. Secure attachment is when a child has a higher sense of self-esteem than children who grow up in a anxious resistant or anxious avoidance are further likely to experience depression or anxiety,) Bowlby J. (1988) A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory.
I also would like to see more scholarly articles on individuals with disabilities, especially children and adolescence to see how professionals can effectively support the younger generations from committing a crime later on in their lives. I also wonder how much is this is a lack of education around individuals who have intellectual disabilities as it relates to self-esteem and the forensic population?
Costanzo, M., & Krauss, D. (2018). Forensic and legal psychology: Psychological science applied to law (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
Dagnan D. & Waring M. (2004) Linking stigma to psychological distress: testing a social-
cognitive model of the experience of people with intellectual disabilities. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 11, 247–54.
Johnson J. (2012) J. The prevalence of low self-esteem in an intellectually disabled forensic
population Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(3), 317–325. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2011.01447.x
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