Section I Assignment
Section I Assignment
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Section I Assignment
Infants who are affected by prenatal substance abuse due to abusive mothers are estimated to increase by 15 percent every year (Mann et al., 2018). The exposure to illicit drugs, tobacco, and alcohol during the prenatal period cause specific developmental and physical damage to these infants. The potential challenges regarding the onset of mental problems in later age are also expected in these children. The society and lawmakers devised ways to respond to this problem by various techniques, i.e., incarcerating pregnant women who do drugs during pregnancies, drug treatment and allegation against mother of child neglect. Many states in the United States of America have criminalized the use or abuse of substance and illicit drugs during pregnancy (Lester et al., 2000).
The charges on drug addict or abusive pregnant women comprise of child endangerment, abuse, attempted provoked abuse, drug delivery, child’s substance endangerment, mistreatment of the child, manslaughter, neglect, homicide, and the wound to a child due to carelessness. The substance on which a person is convicted of charges includes heroin, cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, and pills on prescription (Lester et al., 2000). Criminalization of substance use during the onset of pregnancy due to mischief to the embryo or youngster is discussed worldwide. Some lawmaking and implementation authorities assert that criminal discipline prevents the substance use among women who are pregnant. Interestingly, the therapeutic addiction model perceives the issue of substance abuse as an eternal, relapsing disease, with substance maltreatment amid pregnancy an awful, however regular event. In the therapeutic model, treatment, not discipline, is the solution for diminishing the utilization of substances during pregnancy. The doctors of medical and general specialization are broadly restricted to endeavors to condemn substance use by pregnant ladies.
Among various States the vulnerability which is reflected through laws implemented in the society about the finest methodology or legal punishments for doing illicit drugs or substance abuse during the pregnancy change fundamentally. The exploitation of poor kids is expressly being done in 18 countries. This may prompt end of the rights provided to parents, yet not to be jailed. A law has been passed in the state of Tennessee which has authorized objective substance use by pregnant ladies based on assumed damage to the fetus. In 2014, the assembly has passed the bill which unequivocally allows illegal charges for doing substance use in pregnancy and if charged they must be imprisonment. This bill was passed due to the rising rates of neonatal restraint disorder, a narcotic withdrawal disorder in newborn children that may require delayed observing in dangerous consideration units.
Regardless of the absence of criminal rules explicitly focusing on the pregnant ladies doing substance use in various states of the country, the pregnant women are being charged inconsistently, and sentenced for doing unlawful substance use as the criminal offenses for while being pregnant. In both states, Alabama and South Carolina, charges were maintained by the law court (Goshin et al., 2017). The impact of these decisions is to allow ladies indicted for doing substance abuse amid pregnancy under the laws which are not overt about pregnancy.
Restorative and general wellbeing specialists envious of considering a more noteworthy spotlight for providing the treatment to pregnant ladies doing substance use must remain especially cognizant to scholarly endeavors to grow the right meaning of a youngster to incorporate babies or to characterize pre-birth substance use expressly as a type of kid misuse. Both remain to challenge the treatment received by pregnant ladies with drug addiction issue and conceivably increment mischief to moms and youngsters. The impact of these decisions is to allow ladies indicted for doing substance abuse amid pregnancy under the laws which are not overt about pregnancy.
Goshin, L. S., Arditti, J. A., Dallaire, D. H., Shlafer, R. J., & Hollihan, A. (2017). An international human rights perspective on parental criminal justice involvement in the United States. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 23(1), 53.
Lester, B.M. Zachariah Boukydis, C. F., and Twomey, J. E. (2000). Maternal substance abuse and child outcome. In C. H. Zeanah Jr. et al. (Eds.), Handbook or Infant Mental Health (2nd ed.), pp. 161-175. New York: The Guilford Press.
Mann, P. C., Weiss, E. M., Seltzer, R. R., Dodge, R. A., Boss, R. D., & Lantos, J. D. (2018). Child abuse, incarceration, and decisions about life-sustaining treatment. Pediatrics, 142(6), e20180430.
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