The average age of toilet training is 29 months for girls and 31 months for boys. According to Skinner cause of behavior is not free will but it is due to the external factors which impacts the decision of an individual. This indicates that for training infants the most crucial factor is to change the environment. The settings should be such that they encourage infants to lead new behavior. For changing and controlling behavior it is equally important to study the feelings and emotions of the infants. Skinner was a behaviorist so he focused on transforming behaviors. To change the behavior it is essential to change the surrounding environment. The only factors that important are things that could be observed. A child don’t behave in response to fear, obligation or respect. Also he lacks a sense of right or wrong so his behavior is the direct reaction to conditioning. According to this theory infants will behave in the way as they are trained. It is possible to give them toilet training if they receive incentive.
The focus of Skinner is to offer reward to the child for encouraging him to do a certain act. Similarly an infant can also be stopped from doing any action by punishing him. If an infant received a cookie every time on following the steps taught to him for going to toilet, they will ultimately develop that habit. Behaviors can be reinforced which again emphasizes on adopting some rules for the infant. The mother can adopt strict rules and give instructions to the infant. This again provoke infants to follow the orders and directions. Parenting and education are two most effective tools for encouraging certain behaviors or habits in infants. Another strategy that parents can adopt in giving toilet training is to use a commanding attitude. This will create environment in which infant will be bind to follow thee rules or orders.
Compared to Skinner, Freud has focused on Id, ego and superego. According to Freud the most powerful emotion that can influence children is love and affection. They are also attracted towards the parents of opposite sex. According to this philosophy a boy will be more willing to follow the instructions of his mother because he is more attracted to her. Similarly a girl infant will be more willing to follow the instructions of her father. This suggests that both parents can play positive role in helping infants to develop the habit of going to the toilet. Freud further explains that infants are influenced by their unconscious feelings or emotions. The instinctual and selfish urges also have a role in controlling their behaviors. Ego also plays prominent role in transforming the behavior of children. This suggests that they need appreciation for every good action which encourage them to continue it. Similarly, punishment such as whim can discourage them from a bad behavior. Infants learn and internalize the values and rules of their parents. This philosophy suggests that the parents can give toilet training by showing infants to follow rules. This will ultimately allow them to memorize the steps and them follow every time when they feel the urge of going to the toilet. Parents can also play important role by developing the feelings of right and wrong in children. They will memorize that going to the toilet is a right act.
Both Skinner and Freud uses a similar approach of training infants such as by instructing and adopting rules. This will encourage infants to develop a behavior after repeating the act numerous times.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Watson, J. B. (1925). Behaviorism - John Broadus Watson. People's Institute Publishing Company.
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