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Experts on the treatment and development of problems of psychosocial nature during the age of typical adolescence can be distinguished among three basic categories: internalizing disorders, substance abuse, and externalizing disorders.
Internalizing type of disorders is the one in which the problems of the young person are directed inward and are shown in their cognition and emotion distress, such as anxiety or depression. While substance abuse refers to the use of maladaptive drugs which includes drugs that are made legal such as nicotine or alcohol; illegal drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, or ecstasy; and drugs that are prescribed such as sedatives or stimulants. Externalizing disorders include the problems of the young person that are turned outward and are shown in the form of behavioral problems. Some of the common problems of externalizing during the period of adolescence include antisocial, delinquency, truancy, and aggression. It has been reported by various researchers that adolescent who is involved in delinquency are more likely to engage as compared to their peers in precocious behavior of sexuality. Also, they can commit various aggression acts, a pattern what we can term as "problem behavior syndrome". Negatively high emotionality in the adolescent can more probably cause depression suffering, anxious feeling, and other symptom reports of distress.
As far as the cases of drug abuse are concerned, the abuse of alcohol in adolescent according to various researchers is due to the hostile family environment, living in drugs availability context, and having friends that consume different drugs. The intervention that we can regard as most promising for the problems of substance abuse is those in which the target is the social environment of an adolescent as well as the individual factors.
While in the externalizing problem, the experts distinguished it in three major categories in adolescence: aggression, conduct disorder, and juvenile offending. Antisocial behavior originating from the externalizing problem can take three forms such as antisocial covert behavior, authority related conflicts, and antisocial overt behavior. As for the internalizing disorders are concerned, it can afflict 15% of the adolescent when they reach at the age of 18 years. Depression is caused as a result of environmental conditions that interact with the predisposition of an individual.
(2019). Amazon.com. Retrieved 12 June 2019, from https://www.amazon.com/Adolescence-10th-Laurence-Steinberg-ebook/dp/B00DIJC8UA
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