Psychology Exeptional Children
Education and Disabilities
[Name of the Writer]
[Name of the Institution]
Education and Disabilities
1. Identify and discuss 3 key areas where attention is needed from policymakers, business, and the community if we are true to improve the quality of life for children and adults with disabilities.
In a country where disabilities are increasing every day, and would eventually reach a significant number when the baby boomers generation would grow old with a higher risk of disabilities, some considerable measures are required. In order to manage a very diverse and complex array of demographics and fiscal aspects when making policy changes, to increase productivity and avoid losses, more research is needed to pinpoint exactly which area needs more focus, this point is concurred by a report conducted that points out little to no improvement in this domain since 1997 (Jette & Fields, 2007). Since the new implementation of ADA in 1991 the authorities have worked very hard to make awareness regarding disabilities more accessible, however; the situation is a little different when it comes to providing transportation to the disabled. This raises serious concerns of modality for the family and the individuals themselves.
Instead of merely asking on forms and applications if the individual is disabled there needs to be a more through the system to monitor disabilities so that individual who either does not fall in the common disability strata or is not aptly able to articulate their issues are checked properly without being treated harshly. In order to see a major change in handling disabilities the centers that cater to disabilities and disease prevention need to network and form ties with other agencies in order to monitor the transitioning period more effectively. People with disabilities should have a seamless system in place for them to save them from further undue distress.
2. Describe two educational and therapeutic interventions proven to help children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Among some of the very effective interventions, Functional Communication Training (FCT) is implemented to substitute disruptive behaviors in ASD individuals. In this technique, the problematic behavior is replaced with a suitable and helpful communication. Once the problematic behavior is identified, socially fitting actions are presented and taught as substitutes. Research strongly supports FCT, particularly in a one on one therapy settings, and is seen to enhance communicational skills and interactions. For example; children with limited intellectual and linguistic skills are seen to show great improvements with FCT (Buckley & Newchock, 2005).
Another thing that children with autism struggle with besides communication is the response. Pivotal Response Training (PRT) is a systematic method that applies existing scientific ideologies of ABA. In order to develop a sound communication, play, and societal activities this strategy helps in building a child's creativity and interests, which is what makes this training additionally effective. The pivotal variables of learning and motivation and enhanced where a child easily responds to multiple cues and is able to manage his/her own self and initiation. Research supports PRT's efficacy in enhancing childrens' growing motivation and refining their response and communicational skills. Caregivers and teachers are encouraged to imply PRT because it is a cost and time efficient approach. For example; at early ages such as preschoolers, if PRT is utilized where the child may have mild cognitive deficiencies and have at least a minimum stage of expressive language abilities this technique helps them overcome the problem at a very crucial and early stage and helps them timely develop appropriate response skills (Lindgren, & Doobay, 2011).
3. What are some ways that educators and the support team can encourage the integration of students with severe disabilities into the community through functional skills?
The task that helps a person to successfully become an independent adult is called Functional skill. However to understand this concept in the light of its implementation in the life of a disabled individual the process of transition is important. A disabled individual needs certain skill sets to transition in the world hence the following functional skills help the person adjust effortlessly. The first and foremost skill is literacy; when it viewed through the lens of its everyday utility. Being literate can increase an individual's capability to gather information required and also develop interpersonal relationships with other individuals in order to fit into their group.
Students with disabilities are often at risk when it comes to social skills, this limits their ability to successfully navigate through life and people. Educators, support team, as well as parents, can actively strive to provide as much normality in the disabled child's life as possible. So that they are able to learn and respond to the common societal queues (Carnahan et al., 2009). Self-determination is also very imperative because the world will not always be kind to individuals with disabilities. So such individuals need to make their peace with reality so they can work hard to find strength and determination so that they are able to cope with the stressors in the everyday world.
4. What are the differences between using a culturally and linguistically responsive model VERSUS a deficit model? How each one does affect the assessment and interventions of CDL children?
The primary difference is that where one model (Culturally And Linguistically Responsive Model) is aiming to focus on the differences of students and brings them in the light through inclusive means which make them feel unique and wanted the other model (Deficit Model) focuses on the absence of strength, skills and insists that through simply sheer hard work the student will learn better and chooses and non-inclusive approach. In the deficit model not only is their limitations not reflected but the students additionally suffer because of low socioeconomic backgrounds and their ethnicities. A report from 2014 "center of American Progress report" provided evidence of teacher’s claim that 42 to 57 percent of students from low economic background and nonwhite ethnicity such as Hispanics and Black people were not likely to graduate from college. For students with disabilities and at-risk profiles, CALR M is an essential instructional component because this helps them not to be put at a further disadvantage and helps them learn and grow without undue anguish.
5. Explain how behavior and emotion can affect the achievement of students with specific learning disabilities. Describe at least 2 strategies for addressing these concerns.
The problems associated with emotions and behaviors are the most commonly seen issues when it comes to kids with learning disabilities. However not only is it common it also has severe adverse effects. Researchers have often correlated learning disabilities with psychopathology. In a study conducted (Cantwell & Baker 1991), more than 550 children were outlined as children with some speech or language impairement and when followed up with an interval of five years, 75% had some psychiatric disorder. Anxiety Disorders was the most noticeable disorder seen. Self-esteem is often reported as very low in children with issues regarding learning, along with factors such as disruptive behavior, conduct issues, withdrawal and ADHD along with social difficulties. Actively used strategies include various steps and procedures, where firstly it is essential to acknowledge the problem, have an honest discussion with the child in privacy is advised. After establishing that emotional or behavioral issue is causing disruption in their learning a "cooling down zone" can be allotted where the child must be sent to if extreme reactions are seen. He can go there, calm himself and return to his place to resume the lecture. There can even be discreet signals that exist between the child and the teacher so if the child is being difficult the teacher can let him know through this means. This way the teacher does not have to call the student out in front of everybody. Journaling can also be advised to the student if he struggles with maintaining his emotions, as this will actively help him understand what he is going through and why he behaves the way he does.
6. Case Study- ELLA
When Ella was 4 years old, she had a near-drowning incident that resulted in a significant brain injury. Now Ella is a 15-year-old high school student. She enjoys school but often struggles to understand instructions given to her by teachers and has difficulty concentrating for long periods. Ella dreams of becoming an actress and would like to go to acting school, but her parents are apprehensive about her plans since she would have to move on her own to attend school.
What type of disability does Ella demonstrate? Explain the characteristics of this form of disability. Ella demonstrates the signs of ADHD attention deficit hyperactive disorder.
The primary characteristics of this disability are inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. It is clearly seen that Ella struggles with paying attention in her class, and impulsively decides that she wants to become an actress. In the history provided no clear hyperactive characteristics are seen but the parents are seen voicing concerns of Ella’s ability to deal with a lot of other people in a new place.
What type of interventions should Ella be receiving in her school?
Since children with learning disabilities are very efficient when it comes to spending their time because they only want to spend their energy on absolutely necessary things, it’s very important for cases like Ella to begin their Integration process more early than it is required. In order for her to settle more easily into her new surroundings when she leaves for acting school, active participation in learning functional skills is required.
As a teacher or psychologist, how would you deal with Ella and her parents? What would be your recommendations?
A child with ADHD is not going to respond well to traditional training so my recommendation would be to not be too insistent on the child to follow the normal rules in the house and be more flexible in tackling Ella’s situation. The quicker the parents accept that their daughter’s brain functions differently than other children the sooner they will be able to make a healthy relationship with her and be able to be an active and helpful part of her life even if she moves away from them.
Buckley, S. D., & Newchok, D. K. (2005). Differential impact of response effort within a response chain on the use of hands in a student with autism. Research in Developmental disabilities, 26(1), 77-85.
Cantwell, Dennis P., and Lorian Baker. "Association between attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders." Journal of learning disabilities 24, no. 2 (1991): 88-95.
Carnahan, C. R., Hume, K., Clarke, L., & Borders, C. (2009). Using structured work systems to
promote independence and engagement for students with autism spectrum disorders.
Jette, A. M., & Field, M. J. (Eds.). (2007). The future of disability in America. National Academies Press.
Lindgren, S., & Doobay, A. (2011). Evidence-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders. The University of Iowa, Iowa.
Ruppar, A. L., Dymond, S. K., & Gaffney, J. S. (2011). Teachers’ perspectives on literacy instruction for students with severe disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 36(3-4), 100-111
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