Gender And Crime
Y bjbj 79 9 bbbbbvvv8 vMh..DDD(k9bbbDDbDbD,ZDRF 0MP ZZb8M ( RUNNING HEAD GENDER AND CRIME
Gender and Crime
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Gender and Crime
Gender and crime have a crucial linkage with each other. From decades it has been observed that males are more involved in criminal and violent activities than the women because of patriarchal society. However, the ratio of the female offenders is increasing with time. The increase in female offenders and gender inequality along with the stereotypes have a negative relationship. Women are different from the male counterparts about personal pathways and background to the criminal activities. In addition, there are least chances for the female as compared to the male to get involved in criminal activities ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDxHnTMnu7,propertiesformattedCitation(Nagel and Hagan, 1983),plainCitation(Nagel and Hagan, 1983),noteIndex0,citationItemsid373,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/QDEM5JZW,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/QDEM5JZW,itemDataid373,typearticle-journal,titleGender and Crime Offense Patterns and Criminal Court Sanctions,container-titleCrime and Justice,page91-144,volume4,sourcejournals.uchicago.edu (Atypon),abstractThe relation between gender and criminality is strong, and is likely to remain so. Women have traditionally been much less likely than men to commit violent crimes, and that pattern persists today. Rates of female involvement in some forms of property crime-notably petty theft and fraud-appear to be increasing. However, while the relative increase in womens property crime involvement is significant, female participation even in these crimes remains far less than that of men. The relation of gender to case processing decisions in the criminal justice system varies from stage to stage. Although the pertinent literature is plagued by methodological and interpretive problems, several tentative conclusions can be offered. Women are more likely than men, other things equal, to be released on recognizance however, when bail is set, the amount of bail does not appear to be affected by the defendants gender. There is no clear evidence that the defendants gender systematically affects prosecution, plea negotiation, or conviction decisions. In sentencing, however, women appear to receive systematic leniency except when they are convicted of high-severity offenses.,DOI10.1086/449087,ISSN0192-3234,title-shortGender and Crime,journalAbbreviationCrime and Justice,authorfamilyNagel,givenIlene H.,familyHagan,givenJohn,issueddate-parts1983,1,1,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Nagel and Hagan, 1983). Therefore, they are less of a threat to society. However, it is significant to understand the role of gender inequality and stereotypes to comprehend the implications of criminal behavior. Due to the mens dominance, women are considered as dependent and weak and these negative stereotypes make female involvement in criminal activities far less than men.
In addition, gender is the element which shapes the behaviour of people in society. Society sets some stereotypes based on gender and people follow them throughout their life. Gender and sex are mostly used as a synonym, however, both the terms contain a specific meaning and discrete interpretation. For instance, sex is the term that indicates the physical and biological characteristics of the individual which classifies them as male and female. On the other side, gender is the identification based on feminine and masculine traits ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDHU1SnPSE,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220Limitations to equality,uc0u8221 2014),plainCitation(Limitations to equality, 2014),noteIndex0,citationItemsid305,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/PBJQX75D,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/PBJQX75D,itemDataid305,typewebpage,titleLimitations to equality Gender stereotypes and social change,container-titleIPPR,abstractAn outsider surveying British political life over the past 30 years who the players are, what the legislative record shows could pretty reasonably deduce that the equality of women to men has ,URLhttps//www.ippr.org/juncture-item/limitations-to-equality-gender-stereotypes-and-social-change,title-shortLimitations to equality,languageen-GB,issueddate-parts2014,10,16,accesseddate-parts2019,4,22,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Limitations to equality, 2014). Traits identified in gender are mostly contracted by society. For instance, females are considered as physically weak in comparison to the male. In addition, men are considered more aggressive than female. These traits or stereotypes develop a particular psychological behaviour for both the gender towards society.
Our society is the male dominant society where female faces discrimination throughout their life under the influence of patriarchal norms. Various movements and policies were established in the past to develop gender equality, however, male privilege still exists in the society. Criminal history indicates that the involvement of men in criminal activities is more than female. Here a misconception is spread in the society that due to the gender inequality, women acquire aggressive and violent nature which result in a crime. The misconception is constructed because most of the time when a female offenders background is observed, it is found that she had children to look after or had faced physical or sexual abuse. Inequality made them get involved in crime (Liddell and Martinovic, 2013). However, these traits are the stereotypes that are present in the society where female are supposed to look after the home and children while male member supports family financially. Even when women go for the job their duties towards home and children remain constant. Therefore, it is totally wrong that gender inequality urges them to be involved in criminal activities. The reality is the opposite because women feel weak and oppressed. Due to the lack of hold over the resources and dependent nature, they do not get involved in violent activities. The crimes in which women get involved are mostly victimless crimes like infanticide and prostitution ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDwoEY3iaZ,propertiesformattedCitation(Hu, n.d.),plainCitation(Hu, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid297,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/635GGC5V,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/635GGC5V,itemDataid297,typearticle-journal,titleGender and criminality common stereotypes,sourcewww.academia.edu,abstractGender and criminality common stereotypes,URLhttps//www.academia.edu/21952287/Gender_and_criminality_common_stereotypes,title-shortGender and criminality,languageen,authorfamilyHu,givenAnka,accesseddate-parts2019,4,22,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Hu,2013).
The gender inequality is the concern highlighted by government and female gender at various point. The movement of feminism is the example where female endeavored to get equality. The rudimentary motivation for the movement was to get their share in the jobs, education and other fields to be independent in the society where men lead women (Cauffman, 2008). However, later the movement of feminism changed its perspective from gender inequality to sex inequality. This new perspective brings the change in the psychological behaviour of the women. It is observed that women adopted an aggressive and abusive nature to get their rights in the paradigm of feminism. Therefore, a sharp increase in criminal activities was observed. The ratio of the male offender is always higher than the female however, a sudden increase in the female offender ratio raised various contentious questions. For instance, the belief that gender inequality becomes the reason of crime for female was deemed wrong because with passage of time female received various privileges in the form of good education, better employment, equal wages which should result in low crime rate in female but an opposite trend was observed ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDZA3bPWN3,propertiesformattedCitation(Beckmann, n.d.),plainCitation(Beckmann, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid309,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/FM2584BK,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/FM2584BK,itemDataid309,typearticle-journal,titleFemale offending and the question of gender specificity,page266,sourceZotero,abstractThis thesis aims to present an examination of the issue of gender specificity and how it applies to understanding female offending. For several decades, a debate has existed in the literature between two fields, the feminist criminological and risk-need-responsivity camps, regarding the most appropriate way to assess and treat female offenders. A systematic review in chapter two examined factors associated with risk for reoffending in females. It demonstrated that while traditional approaches are adequate in predicting risk for recidivism, they do not appear to fully incorporate the complex presentation of females who offend. An empirical research project examining gender differences in violence subtypes in inpatients demonstrated that females who are instrumentally violent present with the most treatment needs in terms of history of victimisation and mental health needs. However, similarities are also noted between genders, with personality disorders being most predictive of instrumental violence in both males and females. Chapter four presents a critique of the Levenson Self Report Psychopathy scale (LSPS) which was utilised to help delineate gender differences in violent subtypes and is commonly used to assess self-reported traits for psychopathy. The review indicated that the LSPS may offer a reliable and valid way to assess traits associated with psychopathy. However, it is also noted that mixed findings regarding factor structure and potential gender issues suggest that tool should be used with some caveats in place. Results indicate that in the search for understanding gender differences in offending, an exploration regarding the expression of psychopathy and personality disorders across genders is integral. It is evident that the time has come to move beyond the gender specificity debate to work towards a more integrated approach to assessing and managing females who offend.,languageen,authorfamilyBeckmann,givenApril,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Beckmann, n.d.). In past, women were not well aware regarding their rights but at the contemporary time, they know all their rights and legal ways to get it. Therefore, it becomes easier for them to be independent. However, the decrease in gender inequality and stereotypes developed a criminal pattern of the female as many cases were recorded where female filed the fake harassment case against their boss or other male colleagues. This kind of behaviour is developed because women know they can use their gender to punish the male member. In case of judgment, women often get favour from the court especially when they have a family behind to look after. The bail filed by the female gets approved more often than the bail filed by the male criminal. There are probably more chances that female criminal can get forgiveness from the victim while least the male get mercy ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationID1EspRiOD,propertiesformattedCitation(Brown and Jones, 2018),plainCitation(Brown and Jones, 2018),noteIndex0,citationItemsid383,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/GH8I6N7U,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/GH8I6N7U,itemDataid383,typechapter,titleGender, Race, and Crime The Evolution of a Feminist Research Agenda,container-titleHandbook of the Sociology of Gender,collection-titleHandbooks of Sociology and Social Research,publisherSpringer International Publishing,publisher-placeCham,page449-457,sourceSpringer Link,event-placeCham,abstractOver the last several decades, feminist scholars have advanced our understanding of the relationship between race, gender and crime. This body of work illustrates how gender inequality makes women more vulnerable to incarceration and punishment. Feminist criminologists who examine crime and victimization through the lens of intersectionality, especially women of color, have also worked to shift the scholarly focus from intersections of gender, race, and crime, which often focus on offending, to a consideration of the intersection of gender, race, and justice, which critically interrogates not only disparities in the distribution of justice, but also the ways that structural violence shapes the vulnerability of women of color to various forms of violence and punitive sanctions. New research and theorizations in this area, including Black feminist and intersectional research and writings, encourage us to move beyond gender binaries to examine the interrelationship between institutions (e.g., police, prisons, etc.) and gendered vulnerabilities to punishment and violence.,URLhttps//doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76333-0_32,ISBN978-3-319-76333-0,noteDOI 10.1007/978-3-319-76333-0_32,title-shortGender, Race, and Crime,languageen,authorfamilyBrown,givenKenly,familyJones,givenNikki,editorfamilyRisman,givenBarbara J.,familyFroyum,givenCarissa M.,familyScarborough,givenWilliam J.,issueddate-parts2018,accesseddate-parts2019,5,9,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Brown and Jones, 2018). All these facts specify that women get more chances to be free after performing a criminal act or they misuse their privilege. It develops the negative behaviour for women which is resulting in more criminal involvement by them ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDmIHLrkyh,propertiesformattedCitation(Bloom et al., n.d.),plainCitation(Bloom et al., n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid304,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/7I3XTMQZ,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/7I3XTMQZ,itemDataid304,typearticle-journal,titleA Theoretical Basis for Gender-Responsive Strategies in Criminal Justice,page25,sourceZotero,languageen,authorfamilyBloom,givenBarbara,familyOwen,givenBarbara,familyCovington,givenStephanie,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Bloom et al., 2002). However, victim ratio of criminal acts is dominated by the women whether done by men or women.
The most important aspect of gender inequality and stereotypes that shape the offending behaviour of the women in the access to the opportunities. Women have limited access to various opportunities due to the male dominant society ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDt4Ll0dba,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220ASARaceCrime.pdf,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(ASARaceCrime.pdf, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid306,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/NQIL26PX,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/NQIL26PX,itemDataid306,typearticle,titleASARaceCrime.pdf,URLhttp//www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/savvy/images/press/docs/pdf/ASARaceCrime.pdf,accesseddate-parts2019,4,22,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (ASARaceCrime.pdf, n.d.). As discussed earlier, stereotypes like women should look after the house works like cooking, laundry and looking after their children are the responsibility of women. However, it is not possible to restrict the women to the housework because they are working with men. In most of the cases, their priority remains with the family. If one of the family members has to quit the job for the family, it will be the female member for the family because stereotype that men are meant to work hard to provide the financial support to the family develops the limitation for the female member of the family. ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDJUReZPlR,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u822090409_Section_1_Women_and_Crime_An_Introduction.pdf,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(90409_Section_1_Women_and_Crime_An_Introduction.pdf, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid302,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/BH8GZMXR,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/BH8GZMXR,itemDataid302,typearticle,title90409_Section_1_Women_and_Crime_An_Introduction.pdf,URLhttps//us.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/90409_Section_1_Women_and_Crime_An_Introduction.pdf,accesseddate-parts2019,4,22,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (90409_Section_1_Women_and_Crime_An_Introduction.pdf, n.d.). Similarly, various jobs are considered to be mens jobs like the job of truck drivers, watchman, and duty at night shift. Other than this, women often face discrimination and harassment at the workplace from the male members which make them psychological weaker. All these inequalities and stereotypes result in limiting the access of women to the opportunities that they can avail. Primarily, male dominance does not allow them to achieve these opportunities. Lack of opportunities and confidence makes women oppressed and weaker which manifests in less involvement in criminal activities. Besides opportunities, women do not get any reason or willingness to adopt unethical behaviour ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDkBgyEx9R,propertiesformattedCitation(Hagan, 1995),plainCitation(Hagan, 1995),noteIndex0,citationItemsid376,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/QCBTLTSV,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/QCBTLTSV,itemDataid376,typebook,titleCrime and Inequality,publisherStanford University Press,number-of-pages396,sourceGoogle Books,abstractThese essays examine how and why inequality affects the patterning of crime and criminal justice. They evaluate the merits of various theoretical ideas, debates, and controversies regarding crime and inequality document the dynamics of inequality in varied crime settings examine methodologies used in exploring the crime-inequality relationship and set forth new research and policy agendas for future work.,ISBN978-0-8047-2404-3,noteGoogle-Books-ID XGIR4xzyuqkC,languageen,authorfamilyHagan,givenJohn,issueddate-parts1995,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Hagan, 1995).
The main component developed by gender inequality and stereotypes is the willingness to do the crime. As men have a high crime rate as compared to the women in almost all around the world which indicates that women do not have much willingness to get involved in criminal activities. However, men even after getting the privilege and more opportunities than women do engage in criminal acts. It has a direct link with the stereotypes created by the society due to which women link their happiness and satisfaction with the prosperity, happiness and progress of the family and people around them ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDy3Go0qYB,propertiesformattedCitation(Daly, 2018),plainCitation(Daly, 2018),noteIndex0,citationItemsid379,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/MBADA9WS,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/MBADA9WS,itemDataid379,typewebpage,titleFeminist Thinking About Crime,container-titleThe Essential Criminology Reader,abstractThe central questions asked by feminist scholars concern the place of sex/gender relations in the shaping of crime, justice, and criminology. With the second,URLhttps//www.taylorfrancis.com/,noteDOI 10.4324/9780429496592-27,languageen,authorfamilyDaly,givenKathleen,issueddate-parts2018,5,4,accesseddate-parts2019,5,9,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Daly, 2018). Women tend to be less materialistic than men while men give priority to the money. Since childhood, the mindset of getting good grades for a good job develops a particular psychological behaviour for the men. Their life goals and aim revolve around accomplishing money and status. This difference of priority due to typical stereotypes present in the society develop the offending pattern for both men and women. However, annual crime reports by Federal Bureau of Investigation, and U.S Bureau of Justice Statistics highlight the fact that offending ratio of women is increasing faster than the men offending ratio ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDgTeOiwGr,propertiesformattedCitation(Yelderman et al., 2018),plainCitation(Yelderman et al., 2018),noteIndex0,citationItemsid380,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/NBETJTEH,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/NBETJTEH,itemDataid380,typearticle-journal,titleUnderstanding Crime Control Theater Do Sample Type, Gender, and Emotions Relate to Support for Crime Control Theater Policies,container-titleCriminal Justice Review,page147-173,volume43,issue2,sourceSAGE Journals,abstractPolicies such as Americas Missing Broadcast Emergency Response Alerts, safe haven laws, Megans law, and three-strikes laws have provided the public with a feeling of safety and security. However, research has provided evidence that disputes their effectiveness. These types of laws and policies have become known as crime control theater (CCT) because they appear to be effective, serve the publics best interests, and provide a crime control purpose but are largely ineffective and have unintended negative consequences. Using self-affirmation and emotion theory, this study examines potential explanations as to why individuals might support CCT policies. It also investigates whether support differs based on relevant characteristics (e.g., gender, sample type, and preexisting beliefs about policy effectiveness). Results suggest that females and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) workers tend to support CCT policies more than males and college students. Further, the relationship between gender and support was mediated by anticipatory guilt, and this effect was stronger for individuals who did not believe in the effectiveness of the policy. Results suggest that individuals who believe the policy is effective will support it more than those who do not, regardless of their anticipated guilt. In contrast, those who doubt the policy only support it if they anticipate feeling guilty this effect is stronger for women. Results can help explain why people support policies that are largely ineffective and suggest that relevance to the issue can help explain why some groups are more supportive than others.,DOI10.1177/0734016817710695,ISSN0734-0168,title-shortUnderstanding Crime Control Theater,journalAbbreviationCriminal Justice Review,languageen,authorfamilyYelderman,givenLogan A.,familyMiller,givenMonica K.,familyForsythe,givenShelby,familySicafuse,givenLorie,issueddate-parts2018,6,1,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Yelderman et al., 2018). However, the total ratio remains less than the men due to the willingness towards the crime. Women tend to be less involved in serious crime categories. For instance, women arrests for homicide, property crime, aggravated assault, and robbery have decreased since the 1960s. Involvement in crime like fraud, thefts, shoplifting, and prostitution was increased by mid-1970s. Various sources prove that women willingness to do the crime is less than the men, therefore, they commit less harm ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDLCVWOd2G,propertiesformattedCitation(Heidensohn, 1989),plainCitation(Heidensohn, 1989),noteIndex0,citationItemsid371,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/EQPLX3XH,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/EQPLX3XH,itemDataid371,typechapter,titleGender and Crime,container-titleCrime and Society,collection-titleSociology for a Changing World,publisherMacmillan Education UK,publisher-placeLondon,page85-111,sourceSpringer Link,event-placeLondon,abstractSince the late 1960s sociology, in common with other social sciences, has been affected by a major change in its assumptions about the world for the first time, gender is on the agenda. A whole new genre of sociological literature now exists which explores gender divisions in society and the gender aspects of social institutions as diverse as the family (Barrett and Macintosh, 1982), state welfare (Ungerson, 1985), education (Deem, 1978), and politics (Randall, 1982). This has probably been the most significant and certainly the most fruitful development in modern sociology (Giddens, 1987).,URLhttps//doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-19763-7_5,ISBN978-1-349-19763-7,noteDOI 10.1007/978-1-349-19763-7_5,languageen,authorfamilyHeidensohn,givenFrances,editorfamilyHeidensohn,givenFrances,issueddate-parts1989,accesseddate-parts2019,5,9,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Heidensohn, 1989). Women barely get involved in repeating crime while men are found to make a long term career in crime. Therefore acts of violence by women result in fewer injuries or less severe damages. The reason behind the difference in criminal involvement is the willingness for the crime. The subjective willingness of women to be involved in offence is restricted to gender inequality but amplified by the opportunity for the crime. For instance, women tend to be involved in the type of crime which is easy and within their skill range. In other words, womens willingness to do the crime is linked to low risk and good payoff. These elements are restricted by gender inequality and stereotypes which leads to low criminal involvement and is less dangerous ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDSs6IBxVl,propertiesformattedCitation(Dodge, 2019),plainCitation(Dodge, 2019),noteIndex0,citationItemsid378,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/YBUEQBDG,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/mlRB1JqV/items/YBUEQBDG,itemDataid378,typearticle-journal,titleWomen and White-Collar Crime,container-titleOxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice,sourceoxfordre.com,abstractWomen and white-collar crime is a topic that has, overall, received little attention in the literature. Initially, women were omitted from discussion and research because of their lack of participation, though some early commentary focused on victimization. When Edwin Sutherland first drew public and academic attention to white-collar crimes, few women were employed in positions that were conducive to commit elite crimes related to occupations or professions. According to Sutherland, white-collar crime involved professional men in positions of trust. From 1939 until the 1970s, work on white-collar offenders and offenses was male-centric, which included both scholarly researchers who were exploring the topic and males committing the majority of crimes. Corporations and respected professionals, not women, were presented with a multitude of opportunities to engage in white-collar crimes with little or no serious consequences. Primarily male corporate executives, politicians, and medical professionals committed white-collar crimes that included, for example, activities such as price fixing, insider trading, bribery, insurance fraud, and Ponzi schemes.Women, who lacked opportunity outside the private sphere of the home, were less involved in crime overall and certainly were in no position to commit white-collar offenses. In the 1940s and 1950s, female crime was typically viewed as promiscuous, aberrant, and male-like behavior. Eventually, in the mid-1970s as more women moved into the public sphere seeking employment, early predictions by female scholars suggested that an increased involvement in white-collar crime was inevitable. The types of crimes committed by women, as noted by pioneering female scholars, were likely to expand beyond prostitution, check kiting, and shoplifting to white-collar offenses as opportunities became increasingly available in the public sphere. Gender inequality in most criminal endeavors continues to exist and more recent debates continue about the role of women in white-collar crime.,URLhttps//oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264079-e-493,DOI10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.013.493,languageen,authorfamilyDodge,givenMary,issueddate-parts2019,2,25,accesseddate-parts2019,5,9,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Dodge, 2019).
Gender inequality and stereotypes developed in the society are the concerns raised by women as well as government from decades. Though, these issues still exist in society. Gender inequality and stereotypes are considered as a negative element for the empowerment of women but it shows a positive impact on the aspect of criminology. It is because gender inequality and stereotypes develop an offending pattern for women. Various sources indicate that men are involved in crime more than women. Women are considered weak, dependent and associated with the family, norms, and traditions while men are considered as strong, independent, and head of the family which develop a practical and aggressive nature for men while women remain less aggressive and violent. Other factors that create the criminal pattern of the women are the opportunities and willingness to the crime. With the gender gap, women do not get many opportunities to be the offender and due to fewer opportunities and high risk their willingness in crime decreases. The evidence concludes that gender inequality and stereotypes limited the opportunities for the women and their willingness to the crime remains less than the men. Feminism has a negative impact over the offending pattern of the women that is crime rate in women has a sharp increase since the 1970s especially after the movements and marches established against gender inequality. Women got more aggressiveness with the increase in demand for equal rights.
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Yelderman, L.A., Miller, M.K., Forsythe, S., Sicafuse, L., 2018. Understanding Crime Control Theater Do78mqso_SGSGSShdCJOJQJaJhzCJOJQJaJhlUCJOJQJaJhhe5CJOJQJaJhhu8X5CJOJQJaJhhx5CJOJQJaJhhkh5CJOJQJaJhjhkhCJOJQJaJhkh5CJOJQJaJhkhCJOJQJaJhjh CJOJQJaJhjhxCJOJQJaJhu8XCJOJQJaJhjhxCJOJQJaJ 8Mghijklmnopqsdgdkhmpdagd mpdgd mp9GEEVVb7IJdgdmpdagdmpdagd7mpdgddgdmpdgdtUdgdu8Xmp g 01mnb @wkkkkkkhcCJOJQJaJhu8XCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhBCJOJQJaJhGCJOJQJaJhshtUCJOJQJjhtUCJOJQJUaJhtUCJOJQJaJhzCJOJQJaJh_CJOJQJaJhlUCJOJQJaJhdCJOJQJaJd89GHzzwk__S_S_S_____h/CJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhGCJOJQJaJhBhG5CJOJQJaJhIDCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhBCJOJQJaJhcCJOJQJaJjhbhbCJOJQJUaJhbhbCJOJQJaJmH DsH D-jhbhbCJOJQJUaJmH DsH DhbCJOJQJaJ FGe )nnnh0hdMkCJOJQJaJjh0hdMkCJOJQJUaJhCJOJQJaJhKXCJOJQJaJhXnCJOJQJaJhDn CJOJQJaJhBCJOJQJaJhdMkCJOJQJaJmH DsH DhdMkCJOJQJaJh/CJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJ(9(h((((((((()I)J)y)))))44444556@6H7I7J7f777778oheOCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhECJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJh0hdMkCJOJQJaJjh0hdMkCJOJQJUaJhBCJOJQJaJhcCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhdMkCJOJQJaJhdMkhdMkCJOJQJaJ8888@8AAAAAABBBRESEbEfEgEhEEEEEEFmZNBhCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJjhdMkhdMkCJOJQJUaJhdMkCJOJQJaJmH DsH DhdMkhdMkCJOJQJaJmH DsH D-jhdMkhdMkCJOJQJUaJmH DsH DhdMkCJOJQJaJheOCJOJQJaJhshtUCJOJQJjhtUCJOJQJUaJhtUCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJFFFFFDIEI_IIII(J0JSJoJJJJJJKKKKKNNO O OtOqPPQQ Q-QQQQ3V4VAVBVDVEVFVyhXnCJOJQJaJhshtUCJOJQJjhtUCJOJQJUaJhtUCJOJQJaJhYCJOJQJaJh0hdMkCJOJQJaJjh0hdMkCJOJQJUaJhdMkCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJheOCJOJQJaJ.FVWWXXX89EF2OT_iitiuiwiiijjjkakbkqqqqqrsssssstttttDERSUVhXnCJOJQJaJhECJOJQJaJh1CJOJQJaJhQCJOJQJaJhshtUCJOJQJjhtUCJOJQJUaJhtUCJOJQJaJheOCJOJQJaJh7CJOJQJaJ5VbPQRkvb6789FIlJhCJOJQJaJhkhh6CJOJQJaJh6CJOJQJaJmH DsH Dh7CJOJQJaJmH DsH DhjhxCJOJQJaJhjhCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhKCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJhCJOJQJaJh.CJOJQJaJheOCJOJQJaJhtUCJOJQJaJhtUhtU5CJOJQJaJIJ_ XYyqmqmqmqmaRjhhxCJOJQJUaJhh)CJOJQJaJhu8XCJOJQJaJh Njh NUh6h6CJOJQJaJmH DsH D-jh6hCJOJQJUaJmH DsH DUh6hCJOJQJaJjh6hCJOJQJUaJh6hCJOJQJaJmH DsH DhdMkhCJOJQJaJmH DsH DhdMkhCJOJQJaJmH sH 72hdhagdmpdgdmpdgdmphdhgdmp Sample Type, Gender, and Emotions Relate to Support for Crime Control Theater Policies Criminal Justice Review 43, 147173. https//doi.org/10.1177/0734016817710695
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