Significance of double dissociation
In psychology double dissociation occurs when manipulation is reverse such as B leaves intact while serving A. Double dissociation means manipulating between A and B or B and A. It is used for providing that one element is not the subset of another. Double dissociation is of significance because it provides stronger evidence about the independence of the neurocognitive system. It is also used for making proper classification between functions and behaviors. The example states that if damage occurs to one area of the brain that makes function A absent while B present, the damage to another area will cause function B absent and function A present. To identify the practical role of double dissociation it is important to find two people who are undergoing brain damage. Two groups are taken; one includes people with the destroyed hippocampus and lack ability to storing episodic memories. The other group consist of people with the fine hippocampus and ability to store episodic memories. Double dissociation thus reveals that for episodic memories it is important to have functional and healthy hippocampus. The process is important for identifying distinct patterns and understanding the difference between defective brain functioning. The concept allows me to draw inference by considering differences between two people or two groups that are neurotically different.
The executive process does not come into play during solving the jigsaw puzzle because this activity needs visuospatial functioning. People undergoing cognitive impairment are unable to solve puzzles. This indicates that engaged cognitive skills are critical for solving puzzles. Comprise perception is also an essentially required trait for this activity CITATION Pat171 \l 1033 (Fissler, et al., 2017). Finding the exact time for solving the puzzle is quite complex and the answer depends on the number of pieces. If a person can solve a 250 pieces puzzle in one hour he will be able to solve a 500 pieces puzzle in no less than 2 hours. Similarly, a person who can solve a 250 pieces puzzle in 2 hours will solve a 500 pieces puzzle in 4 hours. The estimated time for solving 500 pieces is 1 hour 13 minutes. This is the fastest time in which the puzzle can be solved. The duration also depends on the mental capacity ability of people to solve puzzles. The standard world time could be 2 hours. Jigsaw puzzles are difficult to solve for many reasons such as it requires a lot of guessing. Puzzles that are without edges and corners are even hard to solve. These take more time than another type of puzzles. Similarly, puzzles that are of multiple colours could be solved more conveniently compared to the puzzles that contain the same colour pieces.
Receiving an undesirable consequence is not adequate for proving that the decision process is flawed. The purpose of the decision-making process is to make informed decisions and prevent consequences. There are many factors considered for determining if the process is flawed or not. The delays in the meeting the expected deadline exhibit flawed decision-making. The most important aspects of identifying the flaws in decisions are by assessing the completion of goals. The best way of assessing flaws in the decision is by determining the status of goals. If a person fails to attain goals it confirms flaws in decision-making. A single bad consequence may not affect the performance of the entire project. In such a situation, this does not prove decisional flaws. In the same way, if decision-making leads to the attainment of goals irrespective of one bad consequence, it is not flawed. Decisions are flawed when the decision maker fails to reach the desired outcomes. Another way of examining the effectiveness of decision-making is by assessing the ability to meet negative consequences. When a decision-maker manages to use an alternative plan for dealing with consequences the process is not flawed. This also states that the flawed decisions occur when the decision-maker is unable to incorporate a strategy for mitigating negative consequences. The occurrence of many negative consequences can prove flaws and ineffectiveness of the decision-making process. In order to show that the decision process is flawed one need to consider the status of goals and time. The central purpose of decision-making is to assure that the goals are attained on time.
Game of clue
I will rely on inductive reasoning for playing the game of clue. Keeping in view inductive reasoning I will consider the premises and use evidence for the clue game. My strategy would be to use broad generalization and specific observations for solving clues. The concept of inductive reasoning is to move from specific to general. According to this approach, there is no way of reaching complete uncertainty. I will keep notes of the clues that I collected in the game and then use them for making general observations. I will check off clues and write them on a paper for making better choices. I will also consider suggestions of other players. However, I will be attentive to learn when they might be trying to throw me off. Another strategy that I will adopt is to view the checklist of other players because it will allow me to become familiar with their notes. I will flip my sheet down for confusing other players as they might be looking for suggestions. I will also pay attention to the name of the cards and their details. I will take observations on detective note sheets throughout the game. Another strategy used for playing the game is to keep the clues hidden from others. I will make a move to throw off my opponents. To attain this I will pretend that I have a hunch and suggest them to suspect the thing that ii am holding in my hands. Inductive reasoning will be used throughout because there is no specific rule to win the clue game.
Bound function morphemes
Russians have more bound function morphemes compared to English. I will use Broca and Wernicke's aphasia for processing and making appropriate use of the language. languages have an effective role in determining the ability to speak, understand and write language. Broca and Wernicke's aphasia has suggested ways for producing comprehension brought by the neurological disorder. In Broca's aphasia, the damage is done to the brain area and it refers to nonfluent speech. In this case, the speech perception of individuals is not affected. It is difficult to speak sentences in halted speech. There is also evidence of deficits in the halted speech in case of Broca's aphasia. Understanding complex grammar is more difficult that reflects issues with the relative controls. The speaker is thus unable to maintain controls during the speech. Compared to Broca, Werneckiie's aphasia stresses on deficits of comprehension of language. this reflects the absence of understanding the speech. The speech may be fluent but the listeners might find it difficult to make sense. In most of the situations, the listeners are unable to understand what is said. This refers to a complete lack of understanding of the speech. The people undergoing such disorders may be unaware of them. The Broca and Wernicke's aphasia differ in Russian and English language. In the Russian language, it is more complex to recognize the words compared to English. The speech and comprehension deficits are more obvious in Russians.
Human language and animal communications
Human language and animal communication are points along a single continuum in communication complexity. The statement reflects the association between animal communication and human language. The argument suggests continuity between human language and non-human ways of communications. Animal communication can be compared with the development of human language. There is some degree of continuity between these two aspects. Animal communication means transmitting information that brings changes in the behavior of the receiver. There are similarities in the characteristics of non-human communications such as apes, rodents and birds with human language. non-linguistic functions have been sued in identifying the languages of humans. The general similarity is between speech perception of animals and humans. This reflects the need for understanding calls and syllables that can be separated by the periods of silence. It is researched that calls are usually produced in isolation and motives are the syllables that are arranged in a systematic way. The continuity between animal communications and human language depicts that language can also be learned by animals. Such as chimpanzees were taught to learn the language. Different teaching signs were used to teach them language and to recognize words. Chimpanzees had developed the ability to combine words into novel forms after 50 months of training. They were made to recall words and sign language was used for making them familiar with words. The experimental findings depict that animals are able to understand human language but speaking is more complex for them. The ability of some species to identify human language depicts continuity between human language and non-human communications.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Fissler, P., Küster, O. C., Loy, L. S., Laptinskaya, D., Rosenfelder, M. J., Arnim, C. A., et al. (2017). Jigsaw Puzzles As Cognitive Enrichment (PACE) - the effect of solving jigsaw puzzles on global visuospatial cognition in adults 50 years of age and older: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 18, 415.
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