Evolution And Individual Differences
Differential psychology has always been one of the central concerns for both psychologists and philosophers. Individual difference study integrates Cognitive science, Genetics, Biology, and general methodology. Evolutionary psychology has witnessed success in the exploration of adaptive features of the mind and is believed to be ubiquitous across species. This exploration gave rise to the belief that the adaptation approach has something to offer to differential psychology. Furthermore, this is directly linked with the ways how individuals are different systematically from each other. Evolution and individual differences have always been important for several reasons including theoretical and empirical reasons. One of the first documented individual differences in the personality of the individual were dominant vs. submissive, short term vs. long term and liberal vs. conservative, etc.
Humans are different from each other is an obvious fact but tracing the reason for why individuals are different and why with the course of the life, process of evolution takes place is very important. This is why psychologists have always shown interest in exploring individual differences and evolution. The major portions of the questions being prepared in most of the research papers are about the individual differences and are being addressed particularly in personality psychology as its content is not restricted to the particular subsets of the phenomenon in psychology i.e. social interaction, information processing and deviation from normality. Darwin had presented the concept of natural selection which claims that individuals went through an evolutionary process and adapt themselves according to the demands and requirements of the time so that they could make their survival possible. Only those individuals went through the process of evolution that struggled and inherited adaptive genes so that they could fit into their environment (survival of the fittest). Personality and social psychology are mostly appreciated by the differential psychologists who were involved in selection but they had to confine themselves to a certain criterion.
According to David M Buss, individual differences must not be viewed as just the raw material on which selection process operates, rather there is evidence that supports the conception of behavioral functioning and psychological mechanism is centered upon the individual differences. Yael Sela in her work claims that one of the basic processes of evolution is the individual difference as it is a process known for creating and maintaining the adaptations. According to her variation, the property of inheritance and differential reproduction are essential for the evolution of adaptations (Beall et al, 2019). It has been seen that some individuals propagate genes more successfully than that of the other individuals that result in differential reproduction. Research of William Revelle, one of the finest and clearest findings in the past 30 years in differential psychology is genetic control. Genetic effects interact with environmental variables in a complex way. Individual differences also question whether genetic variability among the groups and the individuals. In "the evolution of psychology", the author claimed that Darwin pointed towards the process of natural selection of the humans.
According to Tim and Simon, a range of empirical as well as conceptual strengths have been demonstrated by the evolutionary psychology that supports suitability as an integrated platform for both cognitive science and functional behavior (Antoine et al, 2018). Daniel Nettle in his research has mentioned that heritable variation is ubiquitous within the human population and genetic changes along with selection is the reason for the evolutionary variation that humans went through. He has also mentioned five domains that inculcate variation and differences among the individuals. According to Phillip L. Ackerman, he claims that the study of the individual differences in cognitive functioning dates back to almost the beginning of modern Psychology. Intellectual abilities and achievements of people differ which points towards the psychological fact of individual differences from each other (Dowker et al, 2019). There could be seen a difference in the intelligence of individuals and this is because of the difference of thinking power.
According to the research work of Saul McLeod, Evolutionary Psychology is one of the significant approaches that aims at explaining consistency, change, and growth and it takes into consideration behavior change, feelings and thinking throughout the life of the people and traces the differences and evolution, one went through. Developmental psychologists cover a great number of the theoretical areas i.e. social, emotional, cognitive and biological processes (Al-Shawaf et al, 2019). Areas of empirical research were mainly dominated by psychologists such as North American and Europe. The process of evolution is well explained by the development psychology which aims at the description and explanation of the optimization of development. According to Joshua Wilt, it has been seen that the reflective level of the response towards that situation with time changes as patterns change that also influence the behavior of the individual. The conscious plan of the brain went through an evolution and reflects accordingly and each of the individuals responds differently that points towards cognitive functioning such as meta-processing and self-awareness.
According to Caspi, the co-worker's study of the gene is important for individual differences. Neurophysiological processes of the individuals must be assessed in isolation for focusing on the interaction that exists between environmental and biological aspects. Research of William and his co-workers claim that understanding differential psychology plays a vital role when it is about knowing and making of decisions changed as per the situation. Intelligence is a general capacity of individuals so that they could adjust their thinking according to the new requirements. Intelligence of individuals is mental adaptability of the brain to conditions of life as well as problems. Personality trait theory in around 1960s came under attack as most of the researchers started studying of the non-replicable effects that were without the proper agreement of the structural representation of the personality of individuals. Researchers who were studying personality need to take in account the cognitive processes. Environment is another major factor that influences evolution process and differences among individual along with the patterns of cognitive changes.
Evolution and individual differences have been studied under the category of cognitive aging and with time, there occur changes in the genetic makeup of the brain. Inheritance plays a vital role in the modification of the forms, functions, and structures. For understanding evolution and individual differences, psychologists are trying hard for exploring patterns that affect behavior, cognition and motivation. All these patterns could be conceptualized as the difference in temperaments, interests, and abilities. Cognitive processes must be taken into consideration for tracing the evolution and difference among the individuals. So, as a whole, it could be said that evolution and individual difference are studied by psychologists under the light of the cognitive patterns that could influence that behavior of an individual.
(2019). Personality-project.org. Retrieved 18 October 2019, from: https://personality-project.org/revelle/publications/hid_overview.final.pdf
Al-Shawaf, L., Lewis, D. M., Wehbe, Y. S., & Buss, D. M. (2019). Context, environment, and learning in evolutionary psychology. Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Springer, Cham.
Antoine, P., Dauvier, B., Andreotti, E., & Congard, A. (2018). Individual differences in the effects of a positive psychology intervention: Applied psychology. Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 140-147.
Beall, A. T., & Schaller, M. (2019). Evolution, motivation, and the mating/parenting trade–off. Self and Identity, 18(1), 39-59.
Dowker, A. (2019). Individual differences in arithmetic: Implications for psychology, neuroscience and education. Routledge.
Useful LinksFree Essays About Blog
If you have any queries please write to us
Join our mailing list
@ All Rights Reserved 2023 email@example.com