Employee Satisfaction In Healthcare
Chapter 3: Research Methods
Employee dissatisfaction in healthcare has the potential for severe implications on the society. These implications not only impact employees, but patients and overall patient care as well (Gibson & Petrosko, 2014). A key component that can enable and improve employee job satisfaction is to ensure that employees have the opportunity to express dissatisfaction with their jobs and utilize resources that would help mitigate this dissatisfaction (Torangeau, 2017). It has been shown that sixty percent of hospital employees report low levels of job satisfaction (Radeu, 2017). This job dissatisfaction can lead to depression, anxiety, burnout, fatigue, increased use of sick days, and disgruntled employees who show a decline in performance, hence affecting the overall patient care (Sears, 2105). There is also clear evidence that patient outcomes correlate positively with employee satisfaction (Boev, 2015), in that patents treated by employees with higher levels of job satisfaction tend to heal faster, spend less time in the hospital and discharge with better treatment plans than patients treated by employees who are dissatisfied with their jobs (Meta, 2016). The general problem with employee dissatisfaction is that it impacts multiple facets of an employee’s work. This dissatisfaction then paves the way for a steady decline in patient care as well as negative impacts to the psychological and physiological well-being of the employee (Sears et al., 2015).
There have been multiple efforts to improve job satisfaction in healthcare. However, despite these efforts, research has shown that the number of employees in healthcare who are dissatisfied with their job remains high (Mussrat, 2017). The basis of this problem lies in the fact that those responsible for healthcare management are neither educated on the tools needed to improve job satisfaction, nor do they have the necessary training to improve employee job satisfaction or keep this dissatisfaction from seeping into employees’ performance or patient care (Sears, 2016). Healthcare management should be capable of understanding the negative implications of employee job satisfaction on employee health and how it can leave detrimental impact on workflow and employee presence as well as the use of sick days (Meta, 2016). There is often a lack of correlating the levels of employee job satisfaction with the impact on patient care (Brunges & Foley, 2016). It is this disconnect in knowing the full ramifications that employee satisfaction can have on the hospital, that may lead to management not giving the proper time and attention to educating themselves on what tools the organization has available to mitigate job dissatisfaction (Sears et al., 2016). In order to access this lack of knowledge and tools needed to mitigate job dissatisfaction amongst employees in healthcare, research will be conducted at a hospital in Mid-Michigan to gain a better understanding of how management assesses job satisfaction. Furthermore, the tools available to the hospital management to enhance job satisfaction at workplace will also be reviewed.
The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study is twofold: a) to determine the impact that the right healthcare leadership can potentially have on employee job satisfaction and b) to determine what strategies healthcare management, and the professionals involved i.e. non-leadership employees, can utilize to improve job satisfaction. Information will be gathered by interviewing employees from healthcare system in Michigan. Their views on the issue will be recorded, along with additional information which includes how job dissatisfaction personally impacts them, and their wellbeing in general. The information will be extrapolated via one on one interviews that are approximately one hour in length. Interview questions will be open-ended and will be so designed to gather information needed. Furthermore, the purpose of gathering information from non-leadership employees, will be to explore what the employees’ understanding is of leaderships’ role in mitigating dissatisfaction. The purpose of gathering information from leadership will be to determine their knowledge on the issue of employee satisfaction, and what are the implications of this knowledge to the employees and the hospital with high levels of dissatisfaction. Furthermore, it will also determine how knowledgeable leadership is about accessing resources to assist employees. The questions will focus on what the thoughts and perceptions of employees about the management and how managers feel about assessing levels of job satisfaction amongst employees, along with the resources are available and how managers feel about utilizing these resources. Additionally, these questions will also address the experience of the management regarding their previous management experience and how they worked on improving job satisfaction among those employees. This shall be used as a means to compare the managerial policies as well as their effective execution.
The second method of collecting data on job satisfaction will be via document review. I will research what tools the organization provides to educate management on job satisfaction and what tools are available to mitigate job dissatisfaction. I would like to collect information that management may have from coaching sessions with dissatisfied employees. I would also like to see what surveys human resources may have done in previous years on job satisfaction. I would like explore what programs the hospital has implemented for employees to assist with improving job satisfaction.
The negative implications of job dissatisfaction are numerous and impact patient care as well as employee (Zeng, 2018). In an effort to ensure that employees are performing at an optimum level, most healthcare organizations governed by accreditation bodies, regularly survey employees to determine levels of job satisfaction (Gupta, 2015). One of the goals in doing such is to ensure employee retention and reduce costs by preventing turnover. In organizations where there is a high level of job dissatisfaction, there tends to be higher turnover rates amongst employees Leadership often has a focus on employee retention following the threat of departure (Violante & Vessetti, 2017). If the focus were to shift to the mitigation of dissatisfaction amongst employees, organizations may see a decrease in the number of employees leaving an organization. These primary prevention efforts have shown to have a greater impact on employee retention, versus a more reactive approach (Luda, 2018). Low levels of satisfaction amongst healthcare employees often leads to an increase in stress levels, which ultimately precede an employees' decision to leave an organization (Gupta, 2015). The purpose of the qualitative exploratory case study that will be utilized in this study is to garner an understanding of how management defines employee dissatisfaction and what strategies are utilized by healthcare management to assist in decreasing job dissatisfaction. I will compare and contrast the techniques utilized by management to assist in mitigating this satisfaction. I will interview leadership, analyze the Human Resources’ training for leaders as related to employee satisfaction and coaching materials and I will conduct surveys to determine what current strategies are employed to assist with the problem.
This chapter started with a reinstatement of the problem statement and purpose. This is followed by a discussion of research methods and the overarching goal of the study. The next components include research questions and a discussion of research method and design, participants, instruments, and operational definitions of variables. Also included are data collection processes and analysis, assumptions, limitations and delimitations of the study. The chapter concludes with a discussion of ethical assurances and a chapter summary.
In an effort to ensure that the research objectives are achieved and to ensure that the gap in the research is filled, regarding management’s definition of what leads to dissatisfaction and how that dissatisfaction is thus being handled, the following questions encompass the focus of the study:
RQ1: What strategies does healthcare management utilize to mitigate job dissatisfaction amongst its employees?
RQ3: What are the commonalities amongst how management handles job dissatisfaction amongst its employees?
I will include a detailed discussion regarding the reason for choosing this particular research method and design. This will be succeeded by introducing the instruments used for the survey as well as collections processes and the processing and analysis involved with data collection. This chapter will also include assumptions, limitation and delimitations of the study. A discussion regarding steps taken to assure participant safety and confidentiality will also be included.
Research Methodology and Design
It is imperative to the quality of this study to obtain appropriate and accurate answers to the posed research questions. In order to ensure this, the correct research method must be utilized. A qualitative case study will be utilized for this study as it is necessary to include the analysis of experiences, behaviors, and observations of participants in environmental context. There are multiple reasons for choosing this method. While quantitative study focuses on cause and effect and utilizes a hypothesis to make a scientific assumption and determine correlations, qualitative research does not focus on correlations but rather allows an in-depth analysis of various human conditions and phenomenology. The benefit to this is multi-faceted, in that the study is more fluid, allowing for the researches to have a focus on a variety of areas involving the subject of the research while utilizing real-life scenarios that dictate actual responses in real-time (Astroth, 2018). Qualitative research offers a flexibility that allows the researcher to retain real-life characteristics that are beneficial in analyzing phenomena that may have been difficult to study utilizing scientific investigation. An exploratory qualitative case study is beneficial to explore the holistic qualities of daily living that are evident in real-life versus a scientific experiment. I will also utilize inductive content analysis to identify themes that will emerge from collected interview data.
I have selected an exploratory case study as the design for this research. There are a few reasons that I have chosen this design type. This design allows for the researcher to make precise inferences and to make suggestions that are directly related to one’s individual encounters and an understanding of the subject being researched. It is also an appropriate methodology for examining circumstances and actions that are impacted by one's actual physical, social and/or emotional environment (Shafer, 2018). The questions utilized in this research also point to the appropriateness of qualitative research as the subject’s individual lives and viewpoints are highlighted while subsequently utilizing the objectives of the research (Astroth, 2018). The exploratory case study design has been shown as the best choice in utilizing research that examines the subject's innate environment, realistic experiences and events that alternate powerfully over time. The main goal for this exploratory case study is to examine current practices utilized by healthcare management and leadership to define and mitigate employee dissatisfaction. In an effort to obtain in-depth responses while exploring amongst a linear population, it is most relevant to utilize a case study approach. This design works well amidst the goal of achieving the outlined research objectives and answering the research questions as it is a great way to complete an in-depth assessment on the tools and techniques currently being utilized by healthcare management. A variety of different viewpoints will be explored and assessed, while appropriately maintain the contextual framework of the study and group demographics. The researcher will gather information from various healthcare leaders within the same organization. This varied study will assist in reaching determinations and inferences related to the study topic. The main focus of this cast study is to gather information and extrapolate from that in an effort to locate different designs and methodologies related to improving employee satisfaction and relate conclusions towards a hypothesis. This methodology can be duplicated in other workplaces where employees have high levels of dissatisfaction and resultant negative implications.
Population and Sample
It is important to ensure that the subset of a particular population is well represented such that the population meets necessary research criteria such that findings cannot be generalized. It is also key to ensure that the geographical locations utilized are not so large that the results are skewed (Sweeney, 2018). The intended population for the proposed study is Healthcare Managers in Michigan. The primary location for the data collection is Mid-Michigan. The rationale for choosing the area is the recent merger of two large healthcare centers, along with a pending acquisition and the opportunities that this has afforded to analyze current management practices, methodology utilized as rationale and the hospitals’ efforts to expand human resources (Brandeo, 2018). This particular location is one that hires people in the surrounding community and also hires multiple professionals from other states and various locations. Many of those hired employees quickly become a part of the local community. As such, this makes for a robust mixture of expertise and experience. This increases the likelihood of choosing study participants that are diverse enough that research objectives can be accomplished, as well as the collection of data while at the same time preserving diversity so that the results are not extremely skewed (Sidhu, 2018). The health system that the hospital is affiliated with has more than 15 affiliated hospitals, with over 100,000 employees. In order to appropriately target the research questions, sampling techniques include purposeful, homogenous and stratified sampling (Skecher, 2018). The goal is to alleviate heterogeneity given the size of the population the sample is being drawn from (Sidhu, 2018).
Rijonsaver (2017) discusses sampling as a way to identify and select participants for a research study. While the focus of quantitative research is on random sampling to ensure equal representation in a population, qualitative research focuses more on a thorough understanding of a particular problem and is catered towards specificity of groups of people, individuals or processes or events. Purposeful sampling assumes that those who have an appropriate knowledge base and information about the concerns being addressed in the study should be utilized as they are more likely to provide necessary information that is also in-depth (Tuval-Mashiach, 2017) One of the more frequently utilized sampling techniques in qualitative research is purposeful sampling (Weis, 2017) as it allows the researcher to hone in on specific information that can be drawn from the participants sharing their experiences and the inferences and conclusions that can be drawn by the researcher from this personal information (Ngata, Wu, Kim, 2017). The knowledge base and experience of the participants utilized will also be balanced with their professional experience to ensure that the participants are fully qualified to answer research questions. As such, the researcher will choose appropriate subjects and do so purposively.
The sample will consist of 10 practice managers in healthcare. A smaller sample size is most helpful in order to gain detailed understanding of the issues related to the research questions and it truly is the best methodology for completing the individual interviews that are required in order to gain a breadth of information such that the questions posed can be answered (Gough & Lyons, 2016).
(You need to clean up the discussion in this component and focus on materials/instruments only. A discussion about data coding, analyzing it, etc. does not belong here. Any data concerning data processing, data collection, and data analysis belongs in the component below. In this component, please describe the instruments (e.g. tests, surveys, observation protocols, etc.) to be used, including information on their origin, reliability, and validity. If there are instrument(s) and any permission needed to use the instrument(s) include these in the appendices. Be sure to discuss any field testing or pilot testing of instrumentation, verify with the IRB any permissions or pilot applications to be completed. Survey development is a scientific process. First, you must search (via peer-reviewed, published empirical research articles and NCU resources) for an acceptable, existing, validated instrument and if found, pursue permissions to use/adapt for use. If no adequate instrument exists, you may develop an instrument after consulting survey item and instrument development sources and plan for piloting and validation. Instrument self-development is discouraged; however, if an appropriate existing validated instrument is not located after a thorough search and a self-developed instrument is proposed, describe the development process in detail followed by measures to demonstrate validity and reliability. The resulting validity/reliability measures should be reported in Chapter 4.
Data Collection, Processing, and Analysis
Data Collection. In the study that is being proposed, the main source of data collection will be interviewees and human resources records for employee satisfaction will be secondary forms of data collection. The interviews will be conducted individually with each participant and a digital recorder will be utilized to record conversations. Qualitative coding and analysis will be utilized in the study. This will be axial, open coding. The goal is to assist in decreasing bias (Bowen, et al., 2017). There are several ways to utilize the principles involved in coding. The purpose of coding is to categorize collected data in order to complete an analysis (Lucyk, Tang, Quan, 2017). In order to prepare the data for analysis, coding will be utilized for the purpose of organizing and managing data. Interview questions will consist of open-ended questions: even though these types of questions can be fluid and dynamic, it is important that the exact same questions are asked of all participants (Clark &, Veale, 2017). The interviewees will be given guides to the questions that will be asked during the interview so that they have time to prepare themselves; however, the interviewees will be instructed not to share these questions or to ask others for advice or opinions on the answering of these questions. An interview guide is an essential tool for a qualitative study that utilizes interview questions with participants (Winston-Proctor, 2018). The guide is set up such that data is well organized and structured in order to ensure accuracy and ensure that the there is a direct focus on the topic at hand. It is important to test the interview questions prior to the actual interview (Winston-Proctor, 2018). This can be done with a sample to ensure that useful and relevant data is collected. Prior to interviewing, thorough review of the interviewees' backgrounds shall occur in order to ensure that each participant has the intended knowledge and experience to accurately answer the questions. This thorough review will consist of exploring resumes and asking questions related to background and experience in an effort to ensure homogeneity amongst participants.
It is essential to ensure that the data obtained in the study is valid and that appropriate conclusions can be drawn utilizing the company from which the subjects are employed (Neal-Kimball & Tuner, 2018). The analysis will be completed, and Microsoft Excel will be used for the processing and analyzing of data. The reason for utilizing this program is due to the ability to decrease the risk of error, which often happens when processing manually (Cruz & Tantia, 2017). This assists in accurate data collection. There is also an increased risk of accurately drawing conclusions and the process of providing recommendations as well as data processing is sped up.
In the utilization of Qualitative Research, it is common practice to utilize interviews for data collection. The initial step in the process of data collection is the development of interview questions (Weis & Williams, 2017). Interviews are an excellent method to use in order to collect thorough information pertaining to the research topic, from a variety of rich sources. The analysis of data collected from interviews is an excellent way to obtain an in-depth understanding of a particular topic and ensure inclusion of important and pertinent details (Strickner, 2018). The interviews that will be utilized in the study will consist of open-ended questions in order to prevent limitation of responses. There is no such ting as a "correct" or "incorrect" answer (Berkman, 2017). It is the open-ended questions of qualitative research that allow for research objectives and questions being addressed, that allow for focus on the personal experiences of those being interviewed and that allow for more in-depth focus on details (Cruz &Tantia, 2017). The benefit to the open-ended questions of an interview is the extrapolation of additional information pertaining to the research questions and objectives.
The data collection process will begin with recruitment. As discussed earlier employees who are managers within the health care system will be interviewed. The second step is to obtain official informed consent from all participants (Weis & Williams, 2017). All participants will attend an interview and if there are any reasons that a participant is not able to complete a full interview, a follow-up will take place. The researcher will organize all of the data collected, will code it and group it. The next step is to interpret the data from the interviews and report findings (Brett & Kerry, 2018). These findings will be included within the study. The expectation is that there will be similar responses to the questions, amongst the participants, leading to easier classification of data (Merkman, 2017). The participants were all selected due to management experience and understanding the dynamics of employee satisfaction and tools utilized to assist in the mitigation of employee dissatisfaction.
The interviews that will be utilized in the study serve as the main method of data collection for this study. It is of utmost importance however, to utilize other data in the study as one cannot provide the necessary conclusions using only personal experiences. The second source of data for this research project will include data from Human Resources at the hospital, surrounding employee satisfaction and tools utilized to improve satisfaction. As part of the study, there will be questions surrounding how materials are distributed and management’s understanding on how to utilize these tools and apply in situations where there is obvious employee dissatisfaction. Managers current available tools will also be utilized as well as standards for improving employee satisfaction. A review of assessments utilized to measure satisfaction and data collection from HR and management will be used as well. The purpose of using additional data, as well as standardized tools, instruments and assessments is to assist the researcher in drawing valid and reliable conclusions in order to make most appropriate and thorough recommendations. Also, there is a benefit to obtaining this additional data, which includes the ability to generalize findings. The reliability of this study can also be checked and added to the remainder of the research (Weis & Williams, 2017)
Data Processing. Once collection of the necessary data has been obtained from all sources, the next stage is processing. Processing is an essential component as it helps to review and extrapolate data from the facts obtained and utilization in ascertaining answers to research questions (Clark &, Veale, 2017). Data processing includes conceptualization and interpretation of answers obtained during the interview process (Merkmann 2017). This step is accomplished by noting most often occurring topics, concepts and ideas from the interviews. Data processing essentially involves diving further into noting patterns obtained in the research (Tourangaeau, 2017). This first step includes dictation of data that has been collected and an invitation for the interview participants to analyze the transcripts for accuracy (Viololante & Vezzetti, 2017). The purpose of this step is to ensure reliability and validity of data. The second step in data processing involves coding of answers to interview questions. The purpose is to organize and streamline the analytical process of identifying trends in the data (Breck & Kelly 2018)
Data Analysis. It is appropriate at this point to discuss threats to validity that can happen in instances of smaller sample sizes. While it is most appropriate to use smaller sample sizes for qualitative research, this requires additional work on the part of the research to ensure validity (Proctor-Winston, 2018). In order to properly address this issue, the researcher must utilize analysis triangulation as well as the process described above, which is having the interviewees “check” the data for accuracy. This check by the interviews is a fairly simple method for ensuring reliability of information and answers obtained during the interview process (Breck & Kelly, 2018). This simply includes sending transcripts to interviewees and having them read over the transcript to ensure that the researcher has captured their answers accurately and that what they were attempting to convey was actually noted by the researcher (Setia,, 2017). Although this process takes quite a bit of time, it is an easy technique that is valuable in attempting to mitigate risk of mistake by the researcher during the note taking process (Merckmann 2018)
In terms of triangulation, this is a method that enhances reliability and validity of acquired data as its multiple methods are utilized for data collection (Setia, 2017) . An example of this is methodological triangulation which compares research findings with research results in the particular area of interest or utilization of various techniques for analysis of insights. The essential goal is to gather indistinguishable results via the utilization of multiple methods of data processing. When this is accomplished, this is the peak of reliability and credibility of the research (Leeat, 2017). Another method utilized to assist with increasing accuracy of data collected is to ensure that the interviews occur in the interviews’ natural environment, rather than in a laboratory or somewhere the interviewees’ have not been. The ensures that if necessary, the researcher can supplement the answers obtained to questions with naturalistic observations, which may include observing the work environment and interactions with co-workers (Setia, 2017). Observing these conditions, can assist the researcher in obtaining additional information that may be quite relevant to the study (Leatt, 2017).
Assumptions. Assumptions, according to McMullen, 2018, in qualitative research, are those ideas that the research believes to be true and that make up the groundwork of the study. In the currently proposed study, there are several assumptions. The fist one is that the interviewees who will be utilized for this study are a true representation of employees and leadership in healthcare industry. A second assumption is that the interviewees will be forthcoming and honest during the interviews. It is important to ensure that all of the data that is obtained is accurate and relevant and that it can be generalized to the healthcare industry. A third assumption is that those chosen for the interviews will be professional, knowledgeable and have an adequate amount of experience to answer the questions. The goal is that the participants will not only be representative of the healthcare worker population but that they will also have enough knowledge about the field and the workforce to answer the research questions thoroughly. Another assumption is that there will be enough data and factual information collected during the interviews to answer all questions, draw accurate conclusions and process data such that further interviews and data collection will not be needed. Another assumption is that the interviewees will answer honestly and openly. The last assumption is that those who are interviewed with bee equipped with the appropriate knowledge base and have the appropriate qualifications to serve as interviewees for the study. In addition to assumptions, there are also limitations and delimitations to the proposed study.
The biggest challenge in data processing is appropriately handling threats to data reliability and validity. It is important to guarantee that information that is obtained for a research project is precise and does not contain inaccuracies as the accuracy of the data is the main determining factor in drawing conclusions and making inferences that lead to recommendations for future research. According to Leeatt, 2018, limitations refer to constructions within a research study that lead to the possibility of developing conclusions that are not adequate or difficulty reaching the research objectives. The proposed research project does contain several limitations, that ay be significant. The major limitation is the sample size. Although this is an adequate and acceptable size for qualitative research, the small sample size can may be a threat to conclusion accuracy and as well as study recommendations (McMullen, 2018 ). There may also be a threat to generalizing findings of the research (Leatt, 2018). Interview questions, according to McMullen, should be short and concise, should allow for the interviewee to reflect and should not be suggestive in terms of providing an answer. There should also not be too many questions, but a few, well-developed, concise questions. Another threat is if there is not enough time allowed for the interviewee to answer the questions and a sense of feeling rushed. Another limitation is time and dedication to other duties, including professional responsibilities (Santiago-Delefosse, Gavin, Bruchez, Roux, & Stephen, 2018). Interviewees may decide not to participate in the research as other obligations may present on the day that the interviews are scheduled. This may be addressed by scheduling another date for interviews or reaching out to interviewees to discuss what occurred that prevented the respondent from completing the interview. An additional limitation is that it is necessary that some of the data must be hand-typed. As a result, this takes longer to collect and process and will ultimately increase the cost of the study. The benefits are improved data quality and a more comprehensive and thorough analysis (McMullen, 2018).
Delimitation involves getting rid of inaccurate or repetitive data. The current concerns for this study revolve around the small sample size and experience and knowledge base of the participants completing interviews, it is important that only those participants who are current employees and function within one working department are chosen (McMullenm, 2018). This is the main delimitation for this study and will assist in drawing accurate and viable conclusions for the particular study. If the generalizations initially made are minimized to include management employees within one particular healthcare system vs the healthcare industry, the central focus of this delimitation will be addressed. Small samples are the most appropriate for qualitative research in which the goal is to gain a more comprehensive analysis of the participants (Rowell & Fernando, 2015). As the main goal of the research is to thoroughly examine the participants, the small sample size is a delimitation of the study.
It is essential to address ethical issues when conducting research that is to be fulfilling and can be utilized for further research and practical application (M One must address the issue of human rights and social responsibilities of conducting research on human beings. Also, it is important that ethics and methodology work together to ensure that participants are protected, and that recommendations, conclusions and study outcomes are supported (McMullen, 2018). it is important that researchers respect privacy and do not breach confidentiality of the participants as they are collecting, processing and storing data. It is also important that participants do not get exposed to workplace-related ethical issues during the study (Tourangaeau, 2017). Also, assuring that the researcher remains ethical throughout the duration of the research has a direct impact on how conclusions are disseminated and how these conclusions are relevant to further research (Lucyk, Tang, Quan, 2017) and warrants further study. A study that follows ethical guidelines and in which the researchers have taken the necessary steps towards protecting participants confidentiality as well as ensuring data security, has a much higher chance of duplication of study and being an academic source that is considered reliable (Clark and Vaele, 2017). There are multiple areas of the research process in which it is important to ensure ethical assurances, including in determining research questions, data analysis, and information storage as well as maintenance. It is also important to ensure that upper management has given consent to the interviewing of management from their organization. If confidentiality as well as anonymity of identifying factors is guaranteed, it is more likely that management will approve as this overcomes potential ethical concerns (Gough & Lyons, 2016). It is also essential to discuss the positive aspects and benefits of research for the company being studied, as the conclusions may be beneficial in mitigating some of the dissatisfaction experienced by the employees.
Another critical step in ensuring that informed consent is obtained (Hanes & Lockwood, 2017). The goal of this is to ensure the confidentiality and privacy of participants by discussing the parameters of the research and ensuring anonymity in the processes of gathering, sorting, analysis and sharing data (Sweeney, 2018). It is also essential to ensure that the participants right for self-determination is honored. Ensuring the individuals self-determinations rights in addition to ensuring anonymity, confidentiality and privacy is the best means of guaranteeing participant safety in studies like the one outlined where there is no risk of physical or psychological harm (Gough & Lyons 2016). It is when informed consent is obtained that participants are made fully aware and knowledgeable about what the researcher will be asking, what type of data will be collected, the purpose of that data collection and intentions for use. Once the participants have received that information, they will be in the most appropriate position to decide regarding whether or not they will participate in the study and what the possible risks of participation may be.
Another area of ethical concern is the development of interview questions. It is extremely important that the questions are unbiased and framed I such a way that respect is shown for the sake of human dignity and that there is not race or gender discrimination (Tuval-Mashiach, 2017). In so doing, that is, assuring that the interviews are race and gender neutral, bias is avoided, and this will lead to increased trust, respect and openness of interviewees. This will increase the chance of collecting data that is accurate and is appropriate for the study (Mermann, 2017). In conclusion, ethical assurances exist when data is analyzed as this requires that the researcher is not biases and remains objective in order to draw appropriate conclusions and lead to recommendations (Brett & Kelly, 2018)
When conducting research on human subjects it is important to adhere to all ethical principles that maintain the rights of participants.
The most appropriate study for this research project is an exploratory case study. This is the most appropriate choice for achieving the research objectives as it allows the for in-depth interviews with a focus on ethnography. This is the most appropriate way to complete a thorough and comprehensive analysis of a chosen environment and the various aspects of that environment (Weiss and Williams, 2017). The study will consist of interviews with open-ended questions with a focus on the interviewees’ personal work experiences, thoughts and feeling related to employee satisfaction in healthcare as well as ways to mitigate dissatisfaction. These interviews are the primary source of data collection. Prior research in this area, human resources’ data related to employee satisfaction as well as compiled statistics regarding employee turnover and correlation with employee satisfaction sure as secondary sources of data for the study. There will be a small sample utilized, with a goal of 10-12 participants (this will be a combination of Medical Practice Managers and Supervisors). Although the sample is small, it is the best choice for this interview as the size allow the researcher to conduct thorough interviews and obtained detailed information in an attempt to satisfy the research objectives (Mermannd, 2017). the Study is built on data analysis and processing, which allows for the researcher to identify most frequent response, patterns and trends in answers to research questions (McMullen, 2018) . In order to assure validity and reliability of the data obtained for this study, it is essential that member checking occurs.
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