Can Music Affect The Cognititve Devleopment In Children
Can music affect cognitive development in children
It is affirmative that music is ubiquitous for the lives of children. Music can be found in almost all the cultures of the world. Several people think that listening to music may affect the development of the brain while others believe that listening to music can lead to the enhancement of higher functioning of the brain. Many of the researchers assert that there is a direct relationship between cognitive development of children and high-quality music, taking into account the research proportion arguing that the IQ of an average child increased up to 7.5 points or it was close to 20, with particular stress on definite improvement in math and language tests. Many of the scientists have formed theories where equal importance and negation is asserted to study the impact of music on cognitive development in children. Music has consumed such a large section of human life that the researchers are enforced to consider if there is any relationship between the cognitive development of a child and music Despite all transitions, it would not be wrong to say that music can affect cognitive development in children.
It is observed that caregivers sing lullabies to soothe upset infants they sing play songs and nursery rhythms to change the mood of children. Music is also used as a tool to teach specific concepts in schools and daycares. One can find several musical interludes in childrens programs. All these stances assert Mozart Effect, the idea that young children and infants can be benefitted from early music training and exposure. The initial study in Mozart Effect by Francis Rauscher and Gordon Shaw concluded that that the subjects who listened to Mozart have increased performance on IQ spatial reasoning tasks, but this effect wore off after 10 minutes. (Hallam, S, 2016, Vol. 16, No. 2). Although this experiment inferred that there was a short term gain in spatial reasoning, still, findings made people question either music affect short term reasoning, or it plays a role in creating long term success for children. By same research, Davies (2000) asserted that Optimal learning occurs when the two hemispheres of the brain work in coordination with each other, it uses the natural design of brain to make learning faster, more entertaining and easier. (Hallam, S, 2016, Vol. 16, No. 2).
Research has highlighted that listening to music requires specific perceptual abilities along with auditory memory, pitch discrimination and the selective attention that can help to perceive temporary and harmonic structure, taking into account the understanding of networks in the brain. According to Xatorre, it has been highlighted that neuroimaging studies have shown that emotions induced by music are much similar to brain regions that are implicated in the non-musical basic emotions, referring to the insula, hippocampus, reward system, and orbitofrontal cortex. (Chen-Hafteck, et, al. 2018, p.40). It is asserted that engaging in music and listening refers to shared language. The communication toll between caregivers and the infants is strengthened from a very young age. Music uses many of those skills that are necessary for supporting language development, sharing the early encoding of the brain. According to research by Barrett, it has been asserted that music plays a significant role in speech development. Rhythmic development and singing can help to promote speech development along with music training that can help to empower child speech development. It was found that both, original and joint music making activities are a primary tool to provide a rich context for the children to get their language flourished. Same research infers that engaging in participatory music help a child to increase communication in groups and empower confidence. When a child experiences musical rhythms, there is an empowerment of social bonding and social development, referring to the formulation of strong bonds between infants, caregivers, and the groups they are exposed to. (Cohrdes, et, al. 2018).
By a research setting that highlighted six months of active participation of a child in music classes that began from the age of 6 months shows that children were good at communication skills, they were better at pointing out the subjects to reach and waving goodbye. Such students smile more they show less distress whenever they are exposed to an unfamiliar setting, or things dont go the way they want. (Cohrdes, et, al. 2018). A research that was done using children who were six to eleven years old, it is asserted that there was a highly positive association between IQ and the duration of music lesson. The study highlights that the students of different age groups were given music lessons for variant lengths of time. (Habibi, et, al. 2018. pp.73-81). It is asserted that the children who were exposed to music lessons were higher in cognitive ability, taking into account that the results were also long-lasting.
Schellenberg has also highlighted that music training is a stance that can lead to improved performance on several tasks that are all associated with cognition and music perception. Another research that experimented on 144 students who were then divided into four groups depicts the positive impact of music in cognitive development. (Chen-Hafteck, et, al. 2018., p.40). Among them, two groups were exposed to the keyboard lessons or voice lessons that used folk songs, hand signs and the rhythmic syllables for one year and the other group was not given the same approach towards learning. These two control groups were not given any drama lesson. After their training, an IQ test was performed on each of the student s group, and the results affirmed that the IQ score was higher in the children who were given drama classes or they were meant to learn by using keyboards. The average IQ of drama students was found to be 4.3 points, and the music lesson groups were assumed to have an average IQ that increased up to 7 points. This evidence paved the way for the fact that music plays a role in increasing the IQ of the students. It is also added that the students who were presented with drama showed increased social behavior and it was not the case in children who were only given the music lessons. (Chen-Hafteck, et, al. 2018., p.40).
A study was done in New Mexico that analyzed the fifth grades students they were made to undergo a Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS). The research highlighted that nearly one-fourth of the students who enrolled in the music program for two years had a better score on all the sections of the test as compared to the entire group of 5, 299 students who underwent the equivalent examination. It is profound to note that there is no full detail about which type of music lesson was given however, the data proved that the students who were taking music experience inferred better results. (Habibi, et, al. 2018. pp.73-81). A study was done on 71 students who were belonging to the age group of 4 to 6 years, and it was discovered that there is a potential relationship between the structured music curriculum as well as cognitive development. Such students were then tested based on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale and another test named as Young Child Music Skill Assessment. After testing and the analysis of results, it was concluded that about half of the participants that were involved in a 75 minutes weekly lesson and were exposed to the subject set for more than 30 weeks of years. After the completion of the program, it was inferred that about half of the students that were involved in 75 minutes weekly lesson for the time span of 30 weeks of years, the students were retested and used the same tests, it was highlighted that there was a considerable gain for the children who were the participants of the music program. (Habibi, et, al. 2018. pp.73-81).
The research highlighted that there was a significant association between spatial-temporal reasoning abilities and first music instructions. It would not be wrong to say that the researchers concluded that there is a relationship between frontal lobes and music. Results found, in general, music increased activity in the left frontal lobes that are associated with happiness. The results of this research were more like a U-turn that highlighted that music created a comfortable environment, and void of tension. Davies, (2000, pg. 150), emphasized that the music in the classroom reduces stress, regulated energy, increases productivity and creates a relaxed productive learning environment that is ultimately connected with the betterment of cognition skills. (Chen-Hafteck, et, al. 2018. p.40).
To understand the impact that music has on cognitive development a study was conducted in Japan to gauge the impact of music in terms of stress level in students and children. Yoon, a researcher, concluded that the students who were exposed to music now and then had better mood swings and they were more towards a low level of stress in their blood. (Cuadrado F, 2019. pp.156-174). An analysis of the neurosurgeons and MIT scientists also assert that music has a direct relationship with positive cognitive development. An analysis of the scans of the auditory cortex, the grouping clusters of the brain cells highlights the activation patterns. MIT scientists assert that they have identified certain neural pathways that have the potential to react exclusively to the sound of music, taking into account that it could be any music. It was found that every time an individual is exposed to music, there is a set of neurons that are nestled within a furrow of auditory cortex will fire as a response to music exposure. It was one of the astounding findings that show that there are distinct areas in the brain that are closely mapped and channeled to the domain of music. (Cuadrado F, 2019. pp.156-174).
Several studies have highlighted that the act of making music is a stance that facilitates a high level of cognitive functions, taking into account the actions such as, logical reasoning, complex problem solving along with certain conceptual tasks. (Hallam, S, 2016, Vol. 16, No. 2). Research has brought into insight that the musicians have a highly developed cognitive memory. Music is more like a connection of tags, sounds and emotional with a certain conceptual, emotional and visual element. This process is again repeated in the minds of children assisting memory skills. By a case study, it has been highlighted that children are having the age of 1 to 5 years, when exposed to music training were able to remember about 20 or more vocabulary words that are read to them off a list. (Hallam, S, 2016, Vol. 16, No. 2). According to a neuroscientist Oliver Sacks, fMRI scans highlight that music effect many regions and wide networks of the brain, including areas that are responsible for emotions, motor actions, and creativity. (Cuadrado F, 2019. pp.156-174). All of these areas are activated and empowered whenever a child listens to music. Although this study was groundbreaking, it was an avenue of flourishment because it was for the first time that research revealed wide networks of the brain along with certain areas that are activated by music, especially those areas that formulate complete section of cognitive development.
The Finnish researchers have found that whenever a child is made to listen to music, a large number of neural networks are activated. The processing of musical pulses recruits and stress the motor centers in the brain, supporting that movement and music are closely intertwined. The limbic areas of the brain that are known to be associated with the emotions are found to be involved and participating in the tonality and rhythm processing. The processing of tone color activates default mode network that is associated with creativity and mind wandering, resulting from supporting the long-debated and time held hypothesis that music enhances numerous aspects that are linked with creativity and learning in ways that cannot be done by other artistic and academic discipline. (Cuadrado F, 2019. pp.156-174).
It would not be wrong to say that the researchers from Denmark, Finland, and the United Kingdom have highlighted that they used specific computer modeling and brain imaging techniques to see what happens when a child is exposed to music. Research by Dr. Vinoo Allluri, the research team leader recorded the response of the brain while listening to music, taking into account that he also noted musical components such as rhythm, timbre, and tonality. (Cohrdes, et, al. 2018). The team discovered that as soon as an individual is exposed to music, there is an activation of motor and limbic regions along with auditory areas, as well as the areas of the brain that are used for the esthetic judgments and self-referential appraisals. In a nutshell, listening to music enhances the brains response in a different way to instrumental and vocal music. It is also significant to note that the same arena of research asserts that Lindermusik experience aimed at introducing children to a wide variety of musical genres to impart an understanding of what can be made possible through music. The experimentation continued for one month, with a precision of classical music. After one month, a value of emotional expression and improvisation was found in the child after playing music. Research also highlighted that exposure to a large variety of songs and rhythm is a critical impression for cognitive development in children. It refers to language proficiency, temporal reasoning, and spatial reasoning. Exposure and listening to music also facilitate the understanding of moods, cultural associating and emotions. (Cohrdes, et, al. 2018).
It is interesting that scholars and doctors have researched and traced mysterious powers of music, taking into account the analysis of incredible insights. It is affirming that exposure to music and rhythm facilities neural bonding that is used for information and thought. Music has the potential to facilitate and empower alpha waves of the brain that creates a sense of calmness and comfort. Listening to music allows childrens development of perceptual skills that ultimately affect literary abilities and language learning along with spatial reasoning. Music activated the subsystem of the brain refers to the structures that are involved in emotional development Music facilities the creation of bonds that facilitate the well-being of children by empowering confidence and learning skills. It is important to note that music promotes the childs potential to address emotional disturbance and catering to the stress level there is reduced anxiety and tension in children when they are made to listen to music. Exposure to music empowers cognitive development, taking into account positive and rewarding learning experiences.
Chen-Hafteck, L. and Meng, E., 2018. Music and language in early childhood development and learning. Music learning and teaching in infancy, childhood, and adolescence An Oxford handbook of music education,2, p.40.
Cordes, C., Grolig, L. and Schroeder, S., 2018. The development of music competencies in preschool children the effects of a training program and the role of environmental factors. Psychology of Music, p.0305735618756764.
Cuadrado, F., 2019. Music and Talent An experimental project for personal development and well-being through music.International Journal of Music Education,37(1), pp.156-174.
Habibi, A., Damasio, A., Ilari, B., Elliott Sachs, M. and Damasio, H., 2018. Music training and child development a review of recent findings from a longitudinal study.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1423(1), pp.73-81.
Hallam, S., 2016, June. The impact of actively making music on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people A summary. InVoices A World Forum for Music Therapy(Vol. 16, No. 2).
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