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What is metacognition? Is the process important to education? How can it be enhanced?
Metacognition is mainly a process of thinking. This process of thinking (metacognition) refers to higher-order thinking which involves strong and active control over the cognitive processes that are engaged in the learning. The activities of the metacognitive include mainly 1) Planning, which means that what should be the process of approaching a given learning task or how to approach a given learning task 2) Monitoring, which involves our comprehension of the task or concern and 3) Evaluating which is associated to ensure the progress towards the completion of the task given.
The process of metacognition is highly important and required for education. The process is important to education almost at every level because it enables the students as well as allow them to get engaged in high order thinking. This engagement in high-level thinking is important in education because it makes a student an effective and good manager of his or her academic task(s). They are made good managers of their tasks because the process helps them to involve three main activities (mentioned above). This means that students become aware of how to plan their academic tasks, why and how to monitor the comprehension of their tasks, and how to manage and then evaluate the progress towards completing the task at hand or assigned (Reber, & Greifeneder, 2017).
In terms of enhancing metacognition, there are several and strategies that one can use but some credible out of them are below.
Teaching students how their brains are wired for the learning ad growth
Assign the students with the practices to understand the reasons behind why they do not understand concepts.
Make sure the provision of opportunities for the purpose to have a reflection on their coursework so that the metacognition may be improved accordingly.
Ensure that do the students keep different learning materials such as journal studies and cases etc. to enhance their knowledge and understanding (Reber, & Greifeneder, 2017).
The metacognition can be enhanced through the process of using a “wrapper” to enhance and improve the monitoring and evaluation capabilities of the students.
Describe the variety of ways developmentalists measure self-esteem and explain how the strategies might be used to conduct research on self-esteem.
It cannot be stated by someone that there is only one or single that the developmentalists can use for the purpose of measuring self-esteem. But a number or a variety of ways are there through which the developmentalists are made able to measure self-esteem. Hence the main four ways that developmentalists use to measure self-esteem are;
Behavioral trace record
In detail, the way is known as behavioral trace mainly attempts to base the judgments on concrete behaviors such as teachers’ responses, feedbacks or comments and grades thereby reducing the observer bias and validity. Direct observation is the second way that is widely used with young children who are not enough efficient to communicate in an effective way through the verbal level but it has the possibility that feelings and values of the observer may bias the outcomes. Despite another way is self-reports. Self-reports are easily scored and more practical. This strategy or way is used to elicit sympathy from the observer so that the desired results are obtained in a fine way. The last and an operative way listed as fourth in the list is the projective techniques. This way or strategy is used to conduct research on self-esteem in a way that reveals an unconscious process in the children as well as in the adults (Ganghua, & Qingchun, 2016). This strategy is easy in general but the scoring process of it that the developmentalists uses it is difficult while it cannot be as objective and valid as the others.
F. Can we reduce adolescent pregnancy? What strategies seem to be effective?
Several strategies and tactics exist which are used for reducing the pregnancy in the adolescent. So based on this statement it is stated that we can reduce adolescence pregnancy. Despite this, these strategies and ways include both clinical practices and processes as well as include credible ways that we can use to reduce adolescence pregnancy (Holness, 2015). So it could also be stated that we can reduce adolescence pregnancy in an effective way.
Effective Strategy for Reducing Adolescence Pregnancy
There are many strategies exists and can be used to prevent and reduce adolescence pregnancy, but some of the credible ones and highly useful are as follows.
At a very basic level, adolescence pregnancy can be reduced by educating the adolescences about sexual health instructions. This can be done in order to develop and make better and healthy choices about their physical and sexual relationships with each other (Holness, 2015). Additionally, different counseling sessions about this concern could also be found helpful.
Educating teen Boys instead of focusing on girls only is a strategy which could be used to prevent and reduce the adolescence pregnancy. This strategy can be found as an effective one because the problem of adolescence pregnancy is not about the girls only while the involvement of boys and their education is also important.
Community involvement is also a strong and effective strategy that could be used to prevent and reduce adolescence pregnancy. With this strategy, it is crucial to ensure that there are effective school and community based programs where adolescence attend sex ed classes so that they can be provided with the details about the problem and how to reduce it in the community (Holness, 2015).
Reber, R., & Greifeneder, R. (2017). Processing fluency in education: How metacognitive feelings shape learning, belief formation, and affect. Educational Psychologist, 52(2), 84-103.
Holness, N. (2015). A global perspective on adolescent pregnancy. International journal of nursing practice, 21(5), 677-681.
Ganghua, F. & Qingchun, Y. (2016). Developmental Self-Esteem Trajectories among Taiwanese Adolescents: Effects of Family and School Context. Taiwanese Journal of Sociology, 60, 55-98.
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