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International Relations Definitions
Realism comprises of relevant theories of the field of international relations that focuses on the role of the state, its national interest and the military power it has in the politics of the world (Baylis et al., 2017). Realism is the prominent concept to study in international relations since World War II.
Anarchy refers to the idea that talks about the state of supreme power or authority. It highlights the state scenario where there is no hierarchy and no enforcement law to stop or resolve the disputes in the system of international politics.
Sovereignty is the form of complete authority or power of a governing entity over itself with no interference from the outside forces that may show the involvement. In political science, a state should have complete control over its matters, i.e. should have sovereignty.
Hegemony is a term used in international relations that talks about the potential of an actor who can construct the global system by coercive as well as non-coercive means.
Deterrence is an international relations theory that gained numerous popularity in international politics due to its depiction of military strategy about the use of nuclear weapons during the cold war. The idea behind the theory is to discourage the opponent from taking an action which is not started yet or to stop him from doing anything that another country wishes.
Zero sum game
Zero sum game is the international political act of dealing with interests. This strategy may involve two or more international players. In Zero Sum Games, the concept is that one country will benefit at the expense of loss of another country in any war.
Classical Realism vs. Neorealism
There are specific differences in both classical and neo-realism. The main difference is that, in classical realism, high politics is involved in the aspects of security, war, and peace whereas neorealism is more extended to all areas of interaction (Bell, 2017). Classical realism is related to the dimensions of international conflict and neo-realists are focused on the anarchic global system. The similarity in both categories of realism is that they both are nation centered sand power focused.
Example of a recent international event with a power display of states
The current tension between the two nuclear power states Pakistan and India raised serious capability issues in foreign affairs. After the attack on the Indian state, the country blames its neighbor for intruding and supporting the non-state actors without providing evidence. India crosses the international border which resulted in rising conflict. However, after the interception of world powers, both countries went back and agreed to resolve the issue through dialogue.
Current international examples of Zero sum game and non-zero sum game
India and China economic struggle are one of the significant examples of zero-sum conflict as both countries compete to achieve the desired edge in the region. As in this case, India can’t win the battle as long as China is competing wisely and vice versa.
Similarly, China and Pakistan’s mega project of CPEC is the significant example in the context of non-zero sum game because in this situation, no doubt China has more gains than Pakistan but Pakistan is also not in loss.
International Relations Basic terms definitions
Interdependence is the tactic used in international relations which says that if the countries become dependent on each other, then this will eliminate their chance of having conflict (Jackson et al., 2019).
In international matters, a theory named by neoliberalism says that all the countries should focus on achieving absolute gains and not the relative benefits concerning other countries. This theory is a response to the approach of neorealism that promotes the idea that states should not interact with each other in terms of cooperation.
It is a claim that the essential aspects of international relations both in terms of history and society are constructed over time rather than unavoidable concerns of human nature or other dynamics of international politics.
Difference feminism is a broader concept that focuses on the works of scholars in highlighting the gender concerns in the domain of international politics.
Liberal feminism is more focused on women's ability to exercise their legal, civil and gender rights by taking specific actions and choices to maintain their equality. It promotes women rights in law, politics, and society and internationally by treating them equal to men.
Liberal institutionalism in countries
There many more examples like US-Canadian international relations in terms of liberal institutionalism that includes Yemen-Saudia Arabia ties, India and U.S.A ties in terms of defense, Malaysia-China relations, New Zealand-Australia ties, etc. Realism is a nation focused where the examples provided above are more related to liberalism as there is cooperation existing in these countries.
International Relations in the context of female leaders
If most heads of states were women, then there must be some differences in ruling the nation and participating in international relations. Women are considered as a gender that is against violence and war and hence looking at this perspective; it can be said that the world would face less war pressure as compared to the present situation. Women might have protected their workers from international competition and might impose restrictions on free trade if matters with some country went wrong. Theresa Mary’s recent actions related to Brexit is the strong evidence of how the world would be like if females were to lead in international politics.
Baylis, J., Smith, S., & Owens, P. (Eds.). (2017). The globalization of world politics: An introduction to international relations. Oxford University Press.
Bell, D. (2017). Political realism and international relations. Philosophy Compass, 12(2), e12403.
Jackson, R., Sørensen, G., & Møller, J. (2019). Introduction to international relations: theories and approaches. Oxford University Press, USA.
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