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Social and economic conditions of the Chicago metropolitan region
Chicago metropolitan is facing challenges in terms of sustainable social progression and economic growth. The twin forces of both technological, as well as global changes, have brought a handful of destructions and segregation in Chicago, leaving it regions in the conflict of prosperity and opportunity. While being termed as one of the richest as well as one of the most popular metro-regions, its economic growth has slowed comparatively in the past few years. According to the information shared by the US Census data from 2008 to 2016, it is found that the median home value is found to be dropped by 14.8%, which automatically places Chicago in the category of hard-hit Sun Belts (Wheeler, et al. pp.160-163).
It is assumed in fact expected that Chicago will remain starkly racially segregated, while its economic segregation will even decline to some moderate level as per the more current situation. There are several reasons for it, such as the overpopulation of the area, along with an increase in the household by 16.9%. Chicago metro region is responsible for the emission of high GHG that is resulting in inefficient buildings, accompanied by underperforming and inadequate transport network and underfunded communities (Harbison, Justin E., et al.). Even the land is sprawling under the impact of adverse environmental conditions. The stance of water and waste management is also important, where water scarcity is one of the most pressing issues. The level of solid waste is also rising, in fact, it has doubled the national average (Hill, et al.). So, it is highlighted that along with deteriorating economic condition, the social conditions are also becoming worse because of the segregation that is not only the product of human actions but also because of the underlying mismanagement that has brought Chicago from the highlights of emblem of social and economic growth to that of social and economic deterioration.
Political machine, its elements and Richard M Daley
Political machine is defined as a political group that comprises an authoritative leader or a small group that commands the support of corps of the supporters as well as the businesses who are tracing some records for the efforts they are doing (Doering, et al.). The central power of the machine is based on the ability of the groups that are in command and the control group to get a vote from the candidates on the day of election (Fedeli, et al. pp. 173-192.). Political machine can also be best defined as a party organization that aims at the recruitment of its members by using some tangible incentives such as political jobs and money, by having a strong control over the members (Doering, et al.).
The major element of the political machine is the votes of the diverse immigrants who have immigrated, the assorted welfare benefits and the dispensed jobs that are offered when the local government provides the paucity of such services (Doering, et al.).
According to Daley, the political machines operate at its best when the political authority is given in the hand of the leader who has a good temper in terms of controlling the minds and the actions of people. As seen during his leadership that he was basically concerned with the holding on of his power. Richard M Daley, not only emphasized the control but his prim concern was the privatization of everything from trash collection to that of parking meters on the fair sale of the city services. Richard not only incorporated small improvements in the quality of the services but he also made attempts that symbolized political leaders as machines as well, the machines of exploitation and consumption of the resource of the public. Along with other actions explained and practiced, machine politics is also seen in his action of minor contract set-aside program that placed African Americans in a high-profile cabinet with an aim to rule over their thoughts and ensure his leadership powers (Doering, et al.).
Political regimes that have characterized Chicago from 1833-present
The politics of Chicago is a national cliché and it has undergone major changes and shift. In 1833 Chicago was Democratic witty politics who dangled patronage missionary groups for votes. In 1871, there was a defeat of the Pope’s Union that accused to victories “FireProof” ticket for the exhortation of its supporters. In 1890, there was a Republican regime under which there was complete control of the Common Council. In 1913, there was municipal suffrage by using Illinois laws, where a woman leads settlement houses, appointed as the commissioner of the public welfare. By 1850, the social disunions inserted ethnic rivalry, and a municipal govern was formulated. This lead to the polarization between the Republican party and the democratic parties. Then, in 1970, Chicago became an industrial metropolis that was following state law. The time between 1870 till 1930 is defined as the time of struggles within the United States to redefine the purpose and nature of the Democratic power. It was the same time when Chicago was also termed as a symbol of Industrial Revolution. Then public outrage empowered the conflict between Republicans and the democratic parties which led to the power of Democratic party in compliance with the Chicago Federation of Labor. 1931 was the reunion of the Republican luminaries which was ended by the Democratic Kely Nash in 1931. In 1960, the Democratic regime was into power which was provided by the Democrats in 1987. From 1987 till now, the government of Chicago is divided into different executive and legislative branches, each of which plays a central role in maintaining the stance of law and order. The legislative branch is made up of 50 aldermen where one representative is elected from each ward of the society. The government policies and activities are established in accordance with the budget ordinance that is usually adopted by each November (Wheeler, et al. pp.160-163).
Governmental problems in the metropolitan region
There are a lot of problems faced by the metropolis government of Chicago, these problems have different dimensions such as the spatial distribution of the population, analysis of the race and the income ratio and the working of the suburbs. There are some prominent issues in terms of police abuse violence, and mounting debts that are part of the national spotlight. The governmental structure of Chicago is almost a failure because it has failed its citizens and all the political powers look ahead for solutions (Salvati, et al.). Mayor Rahm Emanuel is not running for the re-elections and if there will same violating situation, there will be a run-off between the two-top vote-getters. There is a dire need for some inclusive elections because of a lack of accountability (Wheeler, et al. pp.160-163). Chicago also has a pension debt than 44 of the 50 recorded states, and there is no such state with the same municipal debt per capita. There is a serious analysis or dissidence of the citywide issues such as budgets. The fiscal condition is also pathetic because Chicago is spending an amount equal to Los Angeles on the police and fire protection but still, the situation is the same. In LA, the rate of homicide is found to be three times less than Chicago's where the population of LA is 45 percent more than Chicago (Salvati, et al.). The stance of government affairs also needs attention because a single individual is holding the authority of a single department which is casting serious threats to the future of Chicago. Chicago is also rare in empowering the mayor to appoint the school board where there are serious gaps in the leadership. The metropolitan regions are also home to 50 aldermen that are amounting to 1 for every 54,000 radiant. Where the average among the 15 largest cities is found to be more than 11,7000, which provides no serious insight into the dissidence and analysis of the citywide issue such as budget (Salvati, et al.)
Doering, Jan. Us Versus Them: Race, Crime, and Gentrification in Chicago Neighborhoods. Oxford University Press, USA, 2020.
Fedeli, Valeria, Patricia Feiertag, and John Harrison. "Invoking new metropolitan imaginaries: what type of metropolitan region for what kind of metropolitan planning and governance?" Metropolitan regions, planning and governance. Springer, Cham, 2020. 173-192.
Harbison, Justin E., et al. "Variable Efficacy of Extended-release Mosquito Larvicides Observed in Catch Basins in the Northeast Chicago Metropolitan Area." Environmental Health Insights 10.1 (2020).
Hill, Libby. The Chicago River: a natural and unnatural history. Southern Illinois University Press, 2019.
Salvati, Luca, and Giuseppe Ricciardo Lamonica. "Containing urban expansion: Densification vs greenfield development, socio-demographic transformations and the economic crisis in a Southern European City, 2006–2015." Ecological Indicators 110 (2020): 105923.
Wheeler, Kenneth H. "The University of Chicago: A History by John W. Boyer." Middle West Review 5.2 (2019): 160-163.
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