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Puerto Rican Exceptionalism? A Comparative Analysis of Puerto Rican, Mexican, Salvadoran, and Dominican Transnational Civic and Political Ties.
In the article, the authors examined the transnational political variations and civic ties between immigrants from Puerto Rico. For research, the authors used data from the survey of 2002 and collected comparative data on the five groups of the Latino population from five different Latin-American countries. The survey was acquired from TRPI institute, and also 400 participants were randomly selected for the questionnaire. The article was based on two-part in which first part discussed the migrants' involvement in politics and native land associations while the second part contains information about immigrants' demography, characteristics, with measures of incorporation and efficacy. The results indicate that the demographic characteristics had no role, but people who lived in America are more politically active. Participation in transnational activities increased by Latin Americans with a rise in discrimination and education level. Due to the special relationship between America and Puerto Rico, the least evidence for exceptionalism was found as compared to Latin Americans. The study only focused on political participation, which is the flaw of the study where acquired information can be used to study other mediums like socio-economic activities.
Pessimists, optimists, and skeptics: the consequences of transnational ties for Latino immigrant naturalization.
The article focused on the correlation between the political incorporation of immigrants with the transitional ties between Latin Americans. Authors examined the hypothesis of whether the incorporation of the Latin American is effected by transitional ties or not. The research was based on LNS survey in 2006, which was analyzed by logistic regression to measure different variable, including higher income, education, English language knowledge, and homeownership. People from five Latin-American countries who spent time in America were the respondents. The results indicate that it is not possible for people to disconnect from the political situation of their native country. Therefore, the transnational connection definitely impacts the political incorporation process of immigrants. The flaw of research is that it lacks a socioeconomic variable which has a great impact on the political or general decision making of the people.
Under two flags: Dual nationality in Latin America and its consequences for naturalization in the United States.
The article researched the impact of the dual nationality over the rates of naturalization between immigrants to America. The data used to determine the results was collected from the statistics from the Census Bureau, and the INS was acquired from the years 1965-97. To demonstrate the naturalization ratio was taken from the comparison between naturalized immigrants and the total number of people who arrived from their country seven years later. The result shows that people with dual nationality living in America have higher naturalization rates than other citizens. It also highlighted the fact that dual nationality encourages people to participate in political activities, especially for the policies which affect the immigrants directly. The research has the flaw that it used a small group of population to get naturalization ratio, which can lead to inaccurate estimation by applying on the whole population.
Section 2: Transnational Ties among Latino Immigrants
Naturalization is the main factor that can encourage immigrants to participate in the political process of America. All the studies focused on the correlation between the transitional ties and political participation and civic life of immigrants living in America. The studies were based on different research methodology and variables which resulted in different findings. Gershon and Pantoja used variables like birthplace and analyzed LNS data which indicate that transnational ties help immigrants to acquire more knowledge and information regarding the political condition in America and hence their participation increase CITATION Ger14 \l 1033 (Gershon and Pantoja). The study made by Jones-Cornea also finds the same correlation but with the help of dual nationality variable. INS data and naturalization ratio were used to determine the result. The findings indicate that people with dual nationality are more active in political activities in America than other citizens. However, the role of reforms and domestic policies for immigrants were not taken into account while estimating the naturalization ratio CITATION Jon01 \l 1033 (Jones-Correa). Though the study highlights the fact that dual nationality is a factor that impacts the role of the immigrants in America.
The most efficient research and findings were determined by DeSipio and Pantoja. They used numbers of variables including demography, education, settlement status, political engagement, and discrimination perception of immigrants along with the 2002 TRPI data to figure out participation among Puerto Rican and other Latino immigrants. The method does not show the link between naturalization and political involvement in the native country. Though findings indicate that increase in discrimination promotes immigrants to participate in the political activities but it does not impact civic involvement. However, immigration status and transnational ties impact both political and civic involvement CITATION DeS07 \l 1033 (DeSipio and Pantoja). The results of all three different pieces of research are useful to understand the political behavior of the immigrants and factors that impact this behavior. It can be used to understand the role of the immigrants for the political condition of America.
Section 3: Career Connections
Limitations, assumptions, strength, and flaws in different sampling methods are helpful to determine the efficient measure of public support at a particular time for a new market opening. Sample size matters for an accurate result. Small sample size may lead to inaccurate estimation, which can mislead the findings. Besides, some unknown variables can also impact the estimation like time lap and financial limitations. Therefore, large sample size is significant to increase the efficiency and credibility of the research and its results. For instance, during the telephone survey, a large number of population will be easy to divide into different age groups, and with the help of these groups based on ages, an accurate estimation can be obtained. Randomization is another factor that is important for accurate estimation because it prevents the issue of biasedness. Through the random selection of participant, small data can also provide some accurate information.
BIBLIOGRAPHY DeSipio, Louis and Adrian D. Pantoja. "Puerto Rican Exceptionalism? A Comparative Analysis of Puerto Rican, Mexican, Salvadoran, and Dominican Transnational Civic and Political Ties." Latino politics: Identity, mobilization, and representation. Ed. Rodolfo Espino, David L Leal and Kenneth J Meier. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2007. 104-120.
Gershon, Sarah Allen and Adrian D. Pantoja. "Pessimists, optimists, and skeptics: the consequences of transnational ties for Latino immigrant naturalization." Social Science Quarterly 95.2 (2014): 328-342.
Jones-Correa, Michael. "Under two flags: Dual nationality in Latin America and its consequences for naturalization in the United States." International migration review 35.4 (2001): 997-1029.
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