â€“ U.S. Foreign Policy- Perceptions-- How Do â€œtheyâ€ View â€œusâ€?
U.S. Foreign policy- perceptions-- how do “they” view “us”?
US and Angola
US-Angolan countries have bilateral relationship. Diplomatic relations between the countries were established in 1993. Angola is the second major interchange partner of the America in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly due to oil exports. The United States imports from Angola: oil products and diamonds. American exports to Angola: cars, airplanes and iron and steel products. The US and Angola contracted a trade and asset contract that will help expand trade between the two countries. Angola's foreign policy defends cooperation with all states for peace, stability, freedom and development with reciprocal benefits. The relations between Angola and the United States are of strategic importance in the international arena, having regard to the experience of both States in the defense of sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as in the definition of internal and external policies for global progress (Barrett).
According to him, Angola is a country which, for the time being, is making significant, great progress towards development in various fields, and with the establishment of peace in 2002 and the way in which the country has resolved the armed conflict, Angola has become very important at the continental level. In this context, he said, the relations between Angola and the USA took on other political aspects, due to the capacity of Angola in the resolution of conflicts through the pacification policy. Thus becoming a hub for solving the problems that still exist in many countries. For the historian, the Americans consider Angola as a vital space and of interest, which can influence thanks to its policy, due to the maturity that the country has reached, after a long period of fratricides war. Angola has a lot to gain from the American experience, because it can transmit a lot in terms of military, strategies of fight against terrorism, the experiment in the field of autarky, independence in the area of justice and democratization of the state. It was on May 19, 1993, under the presidency of Bill Clinton, that the United States had formally recognized the Angolan government, from that moment, the two countries had established their formal diplomatic relations.
For the first time in the history of American- Angola relations, laid the legal foundation for the economic and political benefits of the US in Angola. The congressional documents state that sub-Saharan Africa is a region rich in human and natural resources, and the continent as a whole has tremendous economic potential and is therefore of long-term political significance for the United States. It is noted that expanding trade and capital inflows create a favorable business climate, allowing to remove any barriers to trade and economic exchanges between the US and African countries. The United States is striving to eliminate tariff barriers for American manufacturers and help create "free trade zones" for American goods in these countries. Angola's accession to liberation in 1975 was tailed by the parting of thousands of Portuguese. The fight among the parties looking for seize power is noticeable by the interference of the characters of the Cold War.
The tone of some articles are very influential for the America and Angola. These articles cover all the points that helps to brings the close relationship. These articles and websites shows that America assistance seeks to emphasis on preventing main communicable diseases, formation health structures, amassed admission to multiplicative health and family planning services, and building capacity in nongovernmental organizations working in well-being support and health service distribution. U.S. help also encourages security sector and stabilization reform (Marcum)..
US government is particularly interested in the reforms underway in Angola and the fight against corruption undertaken by President João Lourenço. From the ambassador's point of view, this action may result in economic and commercial benefits for the two countries. The United States and Angola MADE A formal political relationship in 1993, with the energy sector at the centre of relations. Since the end of the war, in 2002, the objectives of the foreign policy of the United States in Angola have been to promote and strengthen democratic institutions, as well as economic prosperity, improve health, consolidate peace and security. The USA also participated, in collaboration with Angola, in the removal of land mines. The North American Ex-ImBank has a line of credit to support North American exports to Angola (Malaquias).
To conclude, During the civil war in Angola, the United States supported Anwar and UNITA. With the end of the cold war and the continued destruction of the peace process in Angola by UNITA leader Savimbi, the United States stopped supporting UNITA in 1993 and recognized the Angolan government. After Angola and the United States officially established diplomatic relations in 1993, President Dos Santos visited the United States three times (Tvedten). The two countries have expanded their cooperation in the fields of economy, trade and energy, and the relationship has developed smoothly. In 2009, the United States signed an agreement on trade and investment with Angola, and in June 2010 held the first meeting of the US-Ministerial Trade and Investment Committee in Luanda, the capital of Angola (Bryan, Bethany, Sean Sheehan, and Yong Jui Lin).
In April 2013, UNITA President Samakuva visited the United States. Angola is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act. At present, Angola is one of the three major partners of the United States in sub-Saharan Africa, the second largest export destination country in Africa and the third largest source of imports. It is an important oil supplier to the United States in Africa. In 2012, the bilateral trade volume between Angola and the United States was 15 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 15%. The United States exported 2 billion U.S. dollars to Angola and 13 billion U.S. dollars from Angola. The United States mainly exports machinery and equipment, food, steel products, electronic products and aircraft to Angola, and imports crude oil and diamonds from Angola.
Barrett, Alan DT. "Yellow fever in Angola and beyond—the problem of vaccine supply and demand." New England Journal of Medicine 375.4 (2016): 301-303.
Bryan, Bethany, Sean Sheehan, and Yong Jui Lin. Angola. Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC, 2018.
Malaquias, Assis. "Angola: The Foreign Policy of a Decaying State." African Foreign Policies. Routledge, 2018. 23-42.
Marcum, John A. "Lessons of Angola." Foreign Aff. 54 (1975): 407.
Tvedten, Inge. "US Policy towards Angola since 1975." The Journal of Modern African Studies 30.1 (1992): 31-52.
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