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Relativism is a philosophical belief, and it states that all acts of good or bad nature, moral or immoral acts are subjective to each person, and this belief further states that there is no concept of universal truth. Besides, this belief has set the yardsticks of varying culture and situational contexts to define if an act is moral or immoral. For instance, every society has different moral values based on their cultural context. Moreover, according to this notion, all religions, believes, and opinions demand equal consideration and respect. This philosophy gives people liberty, freedom of expression, and saves them from any social or moral judgments.
Relativism allows liberty and freedom, nonetheless, but it does account that morality and truth can be judged based on cultural relativism. Besides, ethical relativism states that the ethical value of any act differs according to its cultural context. Relativity of truth and logic are also dependent on the various cultures and their respective cognitive structures.
Kant’s Deontological theory critiques the idea of relativism that there are no absolute or universal truths. He states that the sense of morality stems from universal moral rules because a bad act can pose a serious threat or harm to the safety of other men. Likewise, an act is considered good universally if it benefits humanity. Besides, a person should decide his action against the standards set by universal moral rules. Logical acts are also aligned with universal morality because logic can allow killing a person, but morality stops genocide. This maxim of morals form universal moral laws, and people turn to these universal rules.
He also distinguishes a prohibitory act from universal laws of morality. He proclaims that if a person murders another person for personal gains and repeats this pattern until it becomes a universal law; in this case, this act is prohibited even if it is not considered immoral.
Unlike, Relativism, Deontology believes that universal laws of morality apply to all cultures equally, and every action must be judged against the moral maxim.
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