Personal Identity, by Hume
Personal identity is regarded as the concept which is developed by an individual him/herself and revolved around the course of life. It includes the part life, which we do not have control over, like the color of skin and where we grew up. However, Hume made a fantastic argument on personal identity. Hume stated that personal identity is about self and there is no self without perception. It is also pointed out that personal identity is self and self is regarded as what makes people distinct. This according to every perception we entered into is very different from others. The perception is what brings the existing of an individual and without perception, there is no identity. Hume argued that the element of self relies on existence which cannot be available without perception. Therefore, our knowledge of personal identity proceeds entirely from the smooth and uninterrupted programs of thoughts. The personal identity relies on how we judge people and therefore, who you are is what people thought of you and without any notions on an individual then it that person is dead.
However, it is pointed out that personal identity is about us and them. It is perceived to be based on the observation and what the mind of people builds after that. For instance, when you’re black, a woman, man or a child, the identity would be build based on how you look and therefore, it what someone becomes. Hume stated that personal identity only exists when an individual can think and build a certain level of perception regarding him or herself. When someone is a sleep or dead all idea of self is gone because an individual cannot be able to think and develop perception as well. The personal identity is therefore, used to separate individuals into groups based on the traits which are built on perception. In conclusion, according to Hume, an individual cannot exist without perception and perception is what builds what we are today.
Be is to be perceived by George Berkeley
To be is to be perceived is the idea of people can only exist when they are being perceived. Berkeley pointed out that to be perceived is the idealism idea which could mean that a person only exists in the collection of ideas that are very minded independent. In this case, it means that the existence of an objective or a person depends on what others perceived. Berkeley believed that everything which exists outside here there is a reason for existence and therefore, everything which exists there is perception or ideas about them. It could also mean that existence is based on the imaginary. For instance, you can imagine a tree outside or a cup inside a fridge and therefore, to perceive the tree and the cup become existence. Therefore, there is existence only because it is in our minds.
Without imagination or thinking in our minds of certain ideas or issues, there would be no existence. It means that whatever exists, exists only because it is in our mind and this is regarded to be perceived. For instance, if we do not have in mind or perceived that trees are outside, then definitely the trees would be in existence. It is therefore, means that to be perceived create the idea of existence and whatever we see or witness is based on our imaginaries. And therefore, according to George Berkeley to be perceived brings out the existence of people or any object. In short, the existence of objects and any other things are based on the way we perceived things and this could only happen when there is a belief of the existence of certain objects.
The Value of Philosophy, by Russell
Russell traces the major goals of philosophies. According to Russell philosophy exist because of the wrong conception which occurs at the end of life. It is also pointed out that for us to realize the value of philosophy we must first free our minds from the prejudice of what we called wrong. Without freeing our minds it would be difficult to determine the true value of philosophy. In this case, Russell means that the best way to understand the value of philosophy is to look at what the body and mind need. In the context, Russell described a person as a deficient of liberal culture. It is also pointed out that practical people will definitely recognize materials need, whether it is less aware of goods or minds. This could mean that the value of philosophy depends on the material value and the value is intrinsically different. Therefore, Russell focuses on the practical and philosophical mind in the relationship to the material value to bring an understanding of the value of philosophy. In this case, philosophy only occurs as a result of the wrong conception which occurs at the end of life of what we try so hard to achieve and strive. It is also believed that philosophy could establish the truth of certain words or matters. Russell pointed out that philosophy is established to analyze the concept and the situation. The value of philosophy could therefore, be established in uncertainty. Therefore, a man has to go through certain prejudice to establish the true meaning of his needs and therefore, the value of philosophy is developed in the mind.
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