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Google Personality Tests Relating To Consumer Buying

Marketing Assignment

Name of Student

Name of Institution

Journal Entry

The marketing effort that was distasteful to me was the online advertisement that pops up every time when I log into any social media or work sites. They were distasteful because they are primarily disturbing. Being a student/ researcher, I need to focus on the things that I have to accomplish. The frequent pop-ups that I come across do not allow me to concentrate properly on the work. Most of the times I have to send some urgent documents on social media and these advertisements keep on disturbing me. Some of the advertisements even contained materials that were not suitable to be seen while sitting at home with family. The marketer can learn how to identify the target market segments that the company wants to cater in particular. I am not a suitable person to target for the advertisement especially when I am relaxing with my kids. They start asking questions about various things that they see. Thus, the marketer will also learn insights as to what time is suitable to target a particular customer. Another aspect of this problem is related to e-commerce websites. I have stopped going to any of the websites that sell products because once I bought something, I was continuously sent the advertisements of relevant products through popups. The marketer will learn how to make people aware of their offers in a better way perhaps via emails.

Answer 1

The personality test that has been chosen is the big five model which has openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism as its components. The people are assessed on the basis of these attributes to gather the information.

The openness shows that the person is adventurous and curious about the new things. This aspect relates to the marketer in a way that people with higher levels of openness will need more advanced and technologically sound products. These people will be in the first ones to test a new product as they will be ready to take a certain level of risks.

The people high on openness have a higher level of emotionality which means that they have a proper understanding of their own feelings. This will make them buy and listen to some uncommon forms of music and musical instruments CITATION Cen \l 1033 (Centiment).

Answer 2

Perception can be defined as the way a person looks at the world around him. There is a large number of things that can affect an individual in the normal course of life. Different people specify different aspects as being important factors for the decision making process. A person will assess the product only if that product is related to the aspect that is considered important in accordance with the perception of that person. Two persons may assess a single person or product differently because the assessment criteria for both people will be different.

The concept of learning can be seen as either a long term or a short term process. In the general aspects of life, this is a long term process. The person will learn with the passage of time about other persons whom they interact during the normal course of life. If we talk about the products, the learning process is a short term process that starts with the purchase of a product and ends with the usage. The person learns whether the said product was useful for him or not.

The term memory refers to the learning that persists over a longer period of time. The basic theme is the accumulation of the various experiences that can be used in the future. This applies to persons as well as the products. In the case of people, one can assess a given situation in the light of past learning about the traits of people as well as the products CITATION Ana17 \l 1033 (Roque, 2017).


Answer 3

Perception is described as a process by which a consumer seeks, arranges and analyzes the information so that some decision can be taken based on this information CITATION Ana17 \l 1033 (Roque, 2017). The needs and wants that the consumer will identify come out of the perception of the consumers. This is a psychological concept that does affect the consumer purchase process. The perception that has been developed about some product whether it is positive or negative, will affect the way consumers perceive a product. If the consumer perception is positive about a particular product, the next time the customer will not go through the formal buying process before buying the same product. However, the problems arise for the marketers when the perception of the customer is negative about a certain product. This requires a lot of effort from the marketer to change the negative perception of the product to a positive one.

Answer 4

The differences between the personalities do affect the buying decisions made by them. A person who has an open personality may be ready to take risks but a person who is high in conscientiousness will not be taking any risks. This will decide the type of products that will be marketed to the people having different kinds of personalities. The openness characteristic will mean that the person will be tempted more to try new products while a person who is high in conscientiousness will prefer the old tested products to be bought again. Similarly, the marketers who need volunteers will look for the people high on the agreeableness aspect because people who are high on this aspect will be ready to help others any time and any way they can.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Sentiment. (n.d.). https://centiment.io/beta/blog/understanding-the-big-five-personality-traits-ocean-and-what-they-mean-for-marketers-and-brands/. Retrieved from https://centiment.io: https://centiment.io/beta/blog/understanding-the-big-five-personality-traits-ocean-and-what-they-mean-for-marketers-and-brands/

Roque, A. C. (2017). Attention, memory and perception: a conceptual analysis of Neuropsychology applied to advertise and its influence on consumer behaviour. SciELO Analytics.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Identifying Target Market

Identifying Target Market

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Identifying Target Market

Target Market

The target market for the bank of America utilizes the targeting strategy for the meticulous set of customer sections which rightly involves the homeowners, business owners, college students and many more. The public of Bank of America generally provides beneficial marketing to its customers like major to small business owners, along with its own employees. It is one of the largest banking organizations. The Bank of America primarily uses the segmentation based on psychographics and demographics for providing the financial needs to the line of customers, i.e., retailers or corporate sector (Pilbeam, 2018). By this way, the Bank remains focused and helps in providing the tailored financial services to its customers overall.

The usage of selective targeting strategy is particularly targeted on the customers, and it mobilizes the maximum business by up-selling and cross-selling strategies. The services and/or products are based on the strategic positioning, this way it creates the idea in the cognition of the customers. The application is based on the segmentation characteristics as the bank provides the most diversified operations. The major segments through which Bank of America Corporation functions are Global Markets, Consumer Real Estate Services, Consumer and Business Banking, Global Banking, and Global Wealth and Investment Management (Lovelock & Patterson, 2015). It has a separate segment for the services provided to the space of consumer real estate. The net high of worthy clients is in the segment of Global Wealth and Investment Management.

Four Service Characteristics of Bank of America


It is the key component characteristic of every good and service provided by a marketing brand or organization (Wirtz, & Lovelock, 2016). Likewise in the services of Bank of America, these are not physical entities which can be seen and touched, rather they can be acquired through purchasing the services. Thus they are known as intangible. The services give an opportunity and experience to its customers, not authentic ownership. That is why the banking system has its own employees or faculty for providing marketing for their products and strategies.


The process of consumption is inseparable from the production of services in the banking system; the simultaneous steps are involved in these two processes. Thus the provider of services, i.e., the employees at the bank plays the most crucial role in marketing the services and providing a satisfactory policy plan regarding goods and products. This personnel goes through the procedure of selection and training, and also they are rewarded according to their performances. This concept of inseparability promoted the notion of creating a good and healthy relationship between the customers and service providers, as the satisfaction of the customer is very important for the selling of services and goods.


The increased variability shown in the services output is known as heterogeneity; this becomes problematic when the services are defined by the labor-intensive. It calls out for the high quality of selection, giving training and retention of good staff or employee. The banking of Bank of America provides the training and retention of employees by using the ultra-technology and equipment. It also provides the best employees through careful selection.


The services are usually perishable, which means they cannot be saved for future use. Due to the advancement in culture and society, the needs also change accordingly. So renovation of services or increase in the quality of these services is the essential need. Is the service is not consumed in the time of availability, and then the capacity is lost too. In exceptional cases, the demand rises above the supply. Therefore it requires a balancing approach to demand and supply of the services.


Lovelock, C., & Patterson, P. (2015). Services marketing. Pearson Australia.

Pilbeam, K. (2018). Finance & financial markets. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Wirtz, J., & Lovelock, C. (2016). Services Marketing: People, Technology. World Scientific Publishing Company.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 2 Words: 600

IMC Tactics

IMC Tactics

IMC Tactics

Walmart, Inc is the largest public corporation of America. It has the largest chain of departmental stores and public corporation in the world. Due to its mega-size, the company stands in between the list of fortune 500 companies. Sam Walton establishes the Walmart store in the year 1962. During the recession-era, Walmart remained the biggest employer. In terms of public revenues, Walmart stores stand among top corporations. During the period of 2007- 09, the Walmart stores had the largest pool of employees. In the consumer market, Walmart holds more than twenty percent of the total shares in America. Since the publication of Time Warner’s fortune magazine, Walmart tops the fortune 500 rankings in public corporation domain ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CNiyJfeO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Kampf, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Kampf, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2052,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/DLUJV5WR"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/DLUJV5WR"],"itemData":{"id":2052,"type":"article-journal","title":"Corporate social responsibility: WalMart, Maersk and the cultural bounds of representation in corporate web sites","container-title":"Corporate Communications: An International Journal","page":"41–57","volume":"12","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Corporate social responsibility","author":[{"family":"Kampf","given":"Constance"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Kampf, 2007). This paper is designed to analyze Walmart’s integrated market communication tactics. The paper will include one traditional and one digital method of IMC tactics. The final part will include the analysis, whether these tactics serve the purpose of marketing completely or not. There will be some recommendations included to make sure these strategies are implemented properly.

In order to analyze the purpose of marketing tactics, one needs to take a closer look at its purpose. Ogden defines this as, it is the stage where products, price of the products, the channel of dissemination, and IMC tactics are deigned ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"BYYKqsxt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ogden, Ogden, & Schau, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Ogden, Ogden, & Schau, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2054,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/7PZ9CIFX"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/7PZ9CIFX"],"itemData":{"id":2054,"type":"article-journal","title":"Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on consumer purchase decisions: Toward a microcultural perspective","container-title":"Academy of Marketing Science Review","page":"1–22","volume":"3","issue":"1","source":"Google Scholar","title-short":"Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on consumer purchase decisions","author":[{"family":"Ogden","given":"Denise T."},{"family":"Ogden","given":"James R."},{"family":"Schau","given":"Hope Jensen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ogden, Ogden, & Schau, 2004). Tactical management is very specific considering the marketing plans. In simple words, tactics take care of all the aspects of a product display in the market. In the case of Walmart, the IMC tactics are areas, which are already exposed to the market and are research-based. There are various aspects related to these tactics and the company has to consider all these aspects at a single point in time. Each execution of the IMC strategy is carried under the overall strategy. Each element remains of prime importance, in order to meet the marketing goals. The management takes care of the fact that no element gets unnecessary media hype, otherwise, it will lose the marketing chunk. The marketing authorities of Walmart believe that any mixed or confusing messages if sent to the audience, might lose the effectiveness of the marketing campaign. This is one of the traditional methods of IMC tactics.

Traditionally, the Walmart IMC tactics are also based on respecting individuals, best customer services and the struggle for excellence. With the advent of modern technological advancement in the advertisement, Walmart finally adopted the use of digital channels for marketing gains. At first, with the use of modern communication channels, Walmart started disseminating the story of the company and the experiences of its 1.4 million associates. Within very less time, the company adopted the use of social communication channels. It helped in redesigning the social strategy, mobile adoption and finally started influencing the retail consumers. Many marketing analysts believe that Walmart digital campaign is a little different compared with other digital communication strategies of other brands. The digital marketing of Walmart is a reflection of its traditional footprints. In a broader perspective, Walmart’s digital campaign has two primary responsibilities. Firstly, it aims at supporting the business, and the second aim is to protect and enhance the reputation of Walmart.

Both the traditional and modern marketing tactics of Walmart serves the purpose of marketing. It has enhanced the outreach of Walmart stores to distant areas in the world. One of the Marketing team’s experts of Walmart argues that although many other brands adopted the digital marketing first, Walmart now positions, not only to keep pace with rather it exceeds the demands of its customers and influencer ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0GaJIMgZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Ferrell & Hartline, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Ferrell & Hartline, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2056,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8VPLYGTN"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/s8f0QVnP/items/8VPLYGTN"],"itemData":{"id":2056,"type":"book","title":"Marketing strategy, text and cases","publisher":"Nelson Education","source":"Google Scholar","author":[{"family":"Ferrell","given":"Odies C."},{"family":"Hartline","given":"Michael"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Ferrell & Hartline, 2012). These marketing experts also believe that these customized marketing tools serve the purpose of Walmart’s marketing and outreach. Despite its expanded outreach, Walmart lacks behind to some more famous brands. In order to compete with these brands, Walmart needs to grasp low customer traffic. It also needs to diffuse the middle-income market segment and needs to maintain a thorough check over poor performance at its distant stores.

Works Cited:

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Ferrell, O. C., & Hartline, M. (2012). Marketing strategy, text, and cases. Nelson Education.

Kampf, C. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: WalMart, Maersk and the cultural bounds of representation in corporate web sites. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 12(1), 41–57.

Ogden, D. T., Ogden, J. R., & Schau, H. J. (2004). Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on consumer purchase decisions: Toward a microcultural perspective. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 3(1), 1–22.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Integrated Marketing Strategy

Integrated Marketing Communication

[Enter Name of Student here]

Course Name and Number

Instructor’s Name

Date Submitted

Introduction to brand

Hotel business has been chosen to make an integrated marketing communications plan. The brand will be developed for a variety of customers ranging from low priced no fringe benefits to high priced full option facilities. There will be range of facilities from three to five-star hotels designed to meet the needs of relevant customers. Our brand image will represent customer needs, values and life happenings which will make it easier for customers to choose our brand CITATION Mik02 \l 1033 (Reid, 2002). We will use emotional stimuli to attach customers to our brand. It is important for the brand to influence consumer’s heart as well as their minds because it has to clear customer’s minds from the impact of old brands. Brand image is either formed immediately or it is developed over the passage of time by providing excellent services continuously. All parts of integrated marketing communication system should be coherent and give out the same message CITATION Maj14 \l 1033 (Seric, Gil-Saura, & Molinqa, 2014).

Target Market

The target market will vary from high to middle income groups depending on their preferences. There will be some corporate clients as well who will be our regular customers and will originate from local as well as international market. All the US citizens who travel to our city and can afford any of our services are considered as target market. However, the primary target market relates to our city and more specifically people with profiles matching to our services. A higher level of service will be required from our end because this will make customers to come back for a revisit. Business community will be offered highest level of technical assistance both within their rooms and in conference rooms of hotel. Segmentation by age will also be appropriate for us especially when there are events organized in various halls of our hotels but they will be our secondary customers. The population of our city is around 125000 people dominated by business and working class. Various business meetings are held on a daily basis with local as well as outside delegations. There is no norm of staying at each other’s house when one comes for business meetings, this provides further opportunities for our hotel to gain business. Major buyer motivation will be convenience that is experienced by customers by staying at a quality resort CITATION Maj11 \l 1033 (Seric & Gil-Saura, Integrated marketing communications and information and communication technology in the hotel sector: An analysis of their use and development in Dalmatian first-class and luxury hotels, 2011).

Overall marketing strategy

The major objective of our marketing strategy is to communicate the difference in our offerings and services offered by other hotels. Our customers compare quality and value for their money to our competitors. This helps us to avoid any price comparisons between us and other hotels. Marketing strategy will also allow our customers to know about our brand values and develop long-term working relationships with our customers as well as suppliers which will help us identifying customer needs in an effective manner. Two major goals set up for our organization are continued differentiation and growth. For the first five years of operations, company will seek growth in revenues and customer base. After this time period, other aspects of growth will be pursued.

Our hotel will provide the most personalized services for our customer irrespective of his income levels. There will be business essentials in every room for corporate clients whereas there will be entertainment essentials for clients from other segment. Hotel will also provide easy to access meeting rooms for business class customers. Reverse positioning strategy is when a player from industry focuses on fundamentals of industry. Applying this strategy in hotel industry will mean that we will have to provide quality service to our customers and charge competitive prices from them. Breakaway positioning is a strategy that allows hotel to position itself on something other than original product category. There is a new definition of product category leading to a new definition of competition as well.

Marketing Mix

Hotel will provide high quality of service to its customers that is differentiated from competition in terms of overall brand strategy. The product offering will allow us to find repeat business from our already satisfied customers.

Pricing will be competitive in nature which means that we will charge a price that is just equal to competitors but we will provide extraordinary services for this same price as compared to competitors. There can be different pricing strategies for the major segments catered by the company. For the segment of people having middle income, we will charge prices lower than competitors. This is called penetration pricing strategy with which we will hope to drive the competition out of this segment market. This strategy will not work for business travelers because they perceive lower prices with lower standard of services.

The placement means location at which hotel will operate, we have chosen a location that is very close to the business hub of the city, this location can be seen as the epicenter of city from where many roads towards various areas of city emerge.

Promotion is the most important aspect of marketing mix in this scenario because this will let our customers know about our offering. As a business, we have to make sure to deliver same quality of services as promised in advertisements. Various modes of advertisement will be used to communicate with customers including print and electronic media. In print media, major source of advertising will be trade publications and industry magazines which have the same target market as we have. Another option is to advertise in magazines such as Times etc. Electronic media advertising will include television advertisements as well as radio which is a source of mass marketing. The television advertisement will show interior and exterior of our location as well as some comments from our customers in foreground. All these modes of advertising will be used one by one over a period of time. This will help us to assess the effectiveness of each mode separately. Once we are able to identify the most effective tool of advertising, we will stick to that. Another mode of advertising will be trade shows held in other cities of the country. This will provide us the opportunity to reach markets in these cities so that people from there will come and stay with our hotel. The most important aspect for us will be to deliver the same level of service quality as depicted by our advertisements. This is very important because advertising develops perceived quality in minds of customers and they compare actual experience to this perceived level of service. A big negative difference between these two aspects will reduce the chances of revisits from customers.

Public relations campaign will help portray our image as a socially responsible business entity. Our efforts in this regard will include proper disposal of garbage and minimum wastage of natural resources in form of food leftovers and water. Philanthropic payments in name of registered schools and charities will also show our commitment to community. A separate public relations officer will be hired by our hotel who will also work as our spokesperson to media. Sponsored events will be organized including children from less privileged class so that a positive social image of our hotel is portrayed. This team will also handle direct marketing campaign for our hotel in which selected corporate and business people will be given information about all our services. There must be good cohesion between public relations team and all other departments of hotel because this will ensure that there is negligible difference between perceived and actual level of services.

Like all other businesses, it is important for hotels to keep up with digital aspects of marketing including internet. An internet marketing campaign must include an effort to maximize local SEO services. This means that people searching for any relevant service in search engine will find our name at the top of results which means that our hotel will be more visible to all our customers especially potential new customers. Like all other marketing tools, SEO needs time and investment of resources.

Today’s world is more mobile than it was even 2 to 3 years in the past which means that mobility aspect has to be an important part of internet marketing strategy. Our major customers are from business world and are on the go most of their time. A mobile friendly website and opportunity for customers to book on the go will mean that our customers will have an access to our website most of the time. There has been an increase in booking from mobile and a decline in booking from PC in the last 12 months’ time. The quality of website should be such that it can run on any device without sacrificing visibility and quality.

There should be ample content for visitors on the website because it is an important part of overall marketing strategy of any business entity. A good strategy may be to have some positive customer feedbacks on first page of website. Some related content can also be shared based on positive customer experiences. In fact, the hotel can have a small team of blog writers whose content is published on relevant blog websites including positive customer feedback.

Active presence on social media is also an important aspect of overall marketing strategy. Business people do not have much time to stick to social media sites so our business will have extensive backend data base that will help us to track relevant people to be targeted. A properly tailored social media advertisement will be sent to these people over a period of time CITATION XiY15 \l 1033 (Leung & Baloglu, 2015). As for the other segments, role of social media will be different because they will spend much time scrolling through their social media accounts. These customers can be targeted by making an active page on all forms of social media and keeping these up to date with all offers and services. Some paid services can also be used to target very specific customers.

Video content can play an important part in communicating intended message to target audience. It is important that hotel management makes and shares videos showing internal and external environment of hotel to present and to prospective customers.

Direct Marketing

Our hotel can use podcasts to tell stories through the voice of our past customers. Storytelling is an effective way to attach travel brands to their audience in a more engaging manner. Video has been used by most hotels but use of audio is ignored. We will use audio story telling by past customers and interviews of other customers who have had good experience spending time in hotel. Each story tries to cover one or two particular aspects of service which were most appealing to particular customers. It is essential that these interviews include people from different cultures and backgrounds. This method covers educational aspect more than the promotional aspect thereby educating people about various aspects of services provided by hotel. Many listeners try to verify these stories by experiencing services by themselves.

Another option available to hotel is to use music videos with some known super stars to promote the image that is global in nature. However, this method of promotion will work well only with the upscale segment. The videos should be shot inside or nearby the hotel and must contain its interior and exterior. Some video may include superstars signing autographs to customers in hotel lobby and other similar activities. When these videos will be uploaded on you tube, there will be huge following in terms of views and likes.

Hotel’s website should contain details of attractions which are worth watching in its city location. There will be video content and printed content as well. Video will be continuously played at the reception and printed materials will be distributed to guests in all rooms. All this information will be available on hotel website as well. The focus must be on persuading travelers into visiting your city. The hotel address will be given right at the bottom so that visitors to site do not think it as an advertising effort. A strong social media campaign should also help in promoting the places to be visited in the city.

After discussing all these aspects of integrated marketing communications, it is necessary that all aspects of this campaign are communicating same meaning and same image of brand. In case of hotel in this scenario, all the ingredients of this system should depict a high level of service and hotel should try and meet the communicated standard of service quality. In service industry, it is harder to meet customer perception of service quality because every customer has different perception of service quality. Thus, hotel management has to make sure that there is a consistent delivery of quality service to all employees. Another aspect relates to changes that have to be incorporated into this communication strategy over time.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Leung, X. Y., & Baloglu, S. (2015). Hotel Facebook marketing: an integrated model. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism themes, 266-282.

Reid, M. (2002). Building Strong Brands Through the Management of Integrated Marketing Communications. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 37-52.

Seric, M., & Gil-Saura, I. (2011). Integrated marketing communications and information and communication technology in the hotel sector: An analysis of their use and development in Dalmatian first-class and luxury hotels. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, 401-414.

Seric, M., Gil-Saura, I., & Molinqa, M. E. (2014). How can integrated marketing communications and advanced technology influence the creation of customer-based brand equity? Evidence from the hospitality industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 144-156.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Integration Of Faith #2

Title Page

Integration of faith

Christian faith impacts marketing management decisions in many organizations such as Chick-fil-A. The emphasis of this marketing company is to build strong organizational-customer relationships by adopting faith-based marketing. This ideology stresses on catering the needs of customers along with their passions, beliefs, and interests. The company's decision of marketing is focused on targeting Christians. Faith-based marketing evokes the public's emotions and is more strong in creating a customer base. By targeting Christians, the organization can generate better revenues and profits. Christians make 231 million of US population, so companies use faith-based marketing to capture wider Christian customers. It is important for organizations to understand Christian beliefs and conduct market research for determining how it drives their behaviors.

The common marketing practice used by some companies for claiming Christian faith is by closing business on Sunday. The companies like Chick-fil-A close their companies on Sunday for honoring God. This exhibits their honor to the fourth commandment and Sabbath. The company believes that these practices will allow them to build a close relationship with customers. The company is giving a positive message to take one day off for worship and connect with God. People having Christian belief will be more likely to appreciate such efforts because it gives them an opportunity to connect with God. The customers of faith-based organizations attain a sense of satisfaction by claiming their link to Christianity. Another common marketing strategy used by companies is by sharing a religious message via toys and CDs. The Veggie Tale message of fast-food companies is used as marketing tools for convincing children about Adventures of Odyssey. Relating the veggie deal with Odyssey depicts the company's strategy of valuing all customers. Scripture mentions, “For I know the plans I have for you, plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future" (Jeremiah 29:11). The verse reveals that organizations must integrate human welfare for their marketing decisions. This also indicates that the organizations must prevent causing any harm to the people by informing them about reality. The marketing companies have used this verse to explain that they are operating for the welfare of people and avoid engaging in practices that could harm them CITATION Eri09 \l 1033 (Kuhn, 2009).

The concept of charities used by Chick-fil-A indicates that the company cares about religion. It is stated, “encouraging, comforting and urging you to live lives worthy of God, who calls you into his kingdom and glory” (Thessalonians 2:12). The verse depicts that one must live a life that is worthy of God by doing good deeds. So the company integrated faith-based marketing for showing its responsibility towards people. The advertisement of charities convinces the audience to buy the product for becoming part of such an organization CITATION Nan17 \l 1033 (Schoenberg, 2017).

One of the common faith-based marketing technique is to give charity to the deserving. Chick-fil-A advertised to support the Christian organizations like Campus Crusade. This gives the message that the price paid by customers is used for the charitable organizations also. The customers believe that such organizations have religious incentives and are fulfilling their responsibilities towards society and the community. The purpose of employing faith-based practices is to gain returns and improve the company's reputation. The evidence revealed by the marketing companies like PyroMarketing depicts customers appreciate the faith-based practices of the companies and are more likely to purchase their products. Companies that lack faith-based practices receive fewer customers who hold Christian beliefs. Similarly, the companies give discounts on Christmas season and Easter to show their connection with religion. Chick-fil-A offers many discounted deals on Christmas that reflect their value towards Christians and God.


Kuhn, E. (2009). How To Faith-Based Marketing. Retrieved 02 22, 2019, from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/eric-kuhn/how-to-faith-based-market_b_209919.html

Schoenberg, N. E. (2017). Enhancing the role of faith-based organizations to improve health: a commentary . Transl Behav Med , 7 (3), 529–531.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Integration Of Faith And Learning 1

Integration of Faith and Learning 1

Author name


The character can be taken as actions in a situation of no clear picks. People and organizations with “character” can perform better in society. The guidance about the merits of character and their effectiveness can be found in the Holy Bible. It is one of the essential characteristics of the Christian faith. Both old and new testaments guide Christians about the practices that assist them in developing the character. Marketing managers can also take this guidance as they have to work in an extremely competitive environment. To sustain in the business they can take many wrong decisions, in the absence of any rules or guidance. But Bible assists them in doing the right things and make them resilient to stand in difficult circumstances. This paper will discuss Scripture verses from the New Testament within the context of marketing management and their impact on marketing management decisions of Starbucks.

1 Corinthian 13 have verses that are related to a character that Christians are required to have with their fellows. The verses state “If I speak in the tongues of men or of angels, but do not have love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal.  If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but does not have love, I am nothing” (1Co 13:1-2; NIV). If a person has all spiritual gifts but he does not love other persons, he is nothing according to the Bible. Love is essential as it is the source of other virtues in people. These verses can be applied within the context of marketing management. People should always love their fellow beings and do not harm them with their business practices. Thus, the most important requirement is to love others. This is the same faith that was also stressed in 1 John. In its fourth chapter, there is great stress over the need of love. God is also used here as a supreme reference that shoe love to humanity. Therefore, Scripture verses are not only defining love but guiding about the way of applying love in life. Marketing managers can take advantage of this teaching in developing their character and the character of their organizations.

Starbucks is an organization whose practices show this faith in its marketing manager s characters. They have designed their marketing mix in such a way that reflects their love for their consumers as well as for their employees. For example, when there comes the question of product or service, the organization has always shown a concern for its customers. They give the quality product that can serve customer’s needs. The products with their features also become the characteristic of the organization. They also charge equitable prices from the customers. In this way, their decisions show their concerns and love for humanity ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SdC7DcTF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mel\\uc0\\u233{} & Schlag, 2015)","plainCitation":"(Melé & Schlag, 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2042,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/WJF2LJNA"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/WJF2LJNA"],"itemData":{"id":2042,"type":"chapter","title":"Christian humanism in economics and business","container-title":"Humanism in Economics and Business","publisher":"Springer","page":"1-10","author":[{"family":"Melé","given":"Domènec"},{"family":"Schlag","given":"Martin"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Melé & Schlag, 2015). The organization has a purpose to serve humanity.

Conversely, marketing managers can use the teachings of the Bible for guiding their behavior. 1 Corinthian stress over the marketing managers to serve their customers with loyalty, tell them complete truth at all steps of marketing and care for them by giving them quality products that best serve their need ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"eYItOnBZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Zondervan Publishing House (Grand Rapids, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Zondervan Publishing House (Grand Rapids, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2041,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/UIID7739"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/UIID7739"],"itemData":{"id":2041,"type":"book","title":"Holy Bible: New International Version","publisher":"Zondervan","URL":"https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=pBRKYgEACAAJ","ISBN":"978-0-310-43526-6","author":[{"family":"Zondervan Publishing House (Grand Rapids","given":"Mich )"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Zondervan Publishing House (Grand Rapids, 2011). These scripture verses can be used as a criterion to go with different attitudes and behaviors as well as refrain from such attitudes and behaviors that are unacceptable ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"VTANXJ8J","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Mel\\uc0\\u233{} & Fontrodona, 2017)","plainCitation":"(Melé & Fontrodona, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":2043,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/S9DHA6VP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/KZl8ZL3A/items/S9DHA6VP"],"itemData":{"id":2043,"type":"article-journal","title":"Christian ethics and spirituality in leading business organizations: Editorial introduction","container-title":"Journal of business ethics","page":"671-679","volume":"145","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Melé","given":"Domènec"},{"family":"Fontrodona","given":"Joan"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Melé & Fontrodona, 2017). By adhering to this criterion, marketing managers can not only develop and guide their character but can also make their customers loyal. Therefore, they can take the benefit of this and make their organizations progress even in difficult situations.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Melé, D., & Fontrodona, J. (2017). Christian ethics and spirituality in leading business organizations: Editorial introduction. Journal of Business Ethics, 145(4), 671–679.

Melé, D., & Schlag, M. (2015). Christian humanism in economics and business. In Humanism in Economics and Business (pp. 1–10). Springer.

Zondervan Publishing House (Grand Rapids, M.). (2011). Holy Bible: New International Version. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=pBRKYgEACAAJ

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Interim Assessment - Analysis Of An Advertisement

Interim Assessment - Analysis Of An Advertisement

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Interim Assessment - Analysis Of An Advertisement


In ancient times, when the humans had not evolved much, and life was very simple, people used to rely on simple products and fulfil their needs through basic commodities. People mostly used to focus on satisfying their needs and not give importance to the alternatives available. As a matter of fact, there were not many choices available at that time. Only essential products were available, and everyone had the knowledge of them. Market system was also not much advanced, and most trade use to happen through barter. Presence of money was an alien concept, and traders only gave preference to sell their product, by hook or by crook. No one was interested in presenting their products or services beautifully or making the general public aware of their products and services.

With the advancement of technology, human needs started becoming more complex, and they began to demand better products as compared to the past. The introduction of currency posed an end to the barter system, and people started exchanging good and services for money. Furthermore, the advancements in technology brought more and more benefits for the people, and they start looking for better options to curb their needs.

Then came the industrial revolution. Multiple types of industries sprung up to cater to the needs and demands of the quickly growing populations. This era was especially characterised with rapid social change motivated by swift shifts in the scientific and technological sectors, lasting from the late 18th century and lasting till the 19th century. Now people had more and more alternatives available against a single need or demand. For a single type of need, there came multiple products and services. People had choices now; they used to get a whole range of products against just a single demand. The competition had largely increased, and people preferred to purchase the best product available in the market. At this stage, the business owners and industrialists felt the need for marketing (Babin, and Zikmund, 2015, p.319).

Marketing refers to the set of procedures and processes, a group of institutions and activities carried on in order to create, communicate, deliver and exchange offering that have values for clients, customers, partners and society at a massive level (Armstrong, Adam, Denize. and Kotler, 2014, p. 25). Marketing, one hand, helps in the promotion and publicity of the product and services and on the other hand, it also helps to impart knowledge about various concepts apart from just the product and service being advertised. Many organisations have a separate formulated department for marketing that is only designed to market the products and services in which the organisation is dealing. In a sole proprietorship or small business setups, marketing is usually carried on by the owner himself or herself or the small team that is managing the business. Lager business setups, on the other hand, have a separate department or departments for marketing (if the operations are spread over the globe).

Marketing has become extremely necessary in today's fast-moving era when the competition between various organisations has increased to cutting edge level, and competitors fight neck to neck increase the figure of their sales (Lovelock, and Patterson, 2015, p. 117). Companies try their level best to attract new customers and retain the already existing customers. Various marketing tactics are also used to bring back the customers who were once the users of company’s products and services but have now either left the product, company or have switched on to some other company. Numerous methods have been designed and formulated for the marketing of products and services such as usage of social media, use of flexes, kiosks, seminars, distribution of free samples etc. One of the most commonly used methods for marketing is Advertisement (Malhotra, and Peterson, 2014, p. 125). An advertisement is the use of a notice or announcement in public to promote and impart knowledge about a specific product, service, and event, create awareness about a cause or job vacancy. The notice or public announcement used for this purpose is called advertisement or “ad” in short.


Almost all the companies use the techniques of advertising to promote and create awareness about their products and services. Multiple sorts of advertisements are seen popping out every now and then to achieve the goals of the organisation (Ellis, Katiyar, and Smolin, 2014, p.214). A recent example of sun an advertisement can be seen in the form of ad presented by Sprint. Sprint is a highly popular telecommunication company that deals in American Market and provides services like telecommunication and internet services (Percy, and Elliott, 2016, p. n.d.).

The Super Bowl 2018 Ad (Sprint Super Bowl Commercial 2018)

Sprint decided to roll out its “Super Bowl TV commercial” in 2018 which was aired in the first quarter of the game (Sprint 'Evelyn' Super Bowl Commercial 2018, 2018). In the 60 second ad, Sprint introduced the world to a new character “Evelyn”, which is a robot. Evelyn is shown to be a highly intelligent robot produced as a result of artificial intelligence. Evelyn is super smart and highly intelligent which can gather data, make quick mathematical and statistical calculations, make comparisons and take rational decisions just like human beings. She is the highest developed machine of her lot and can make really smart moves. It is proven in the very start of the ad, as it is shown playing chess. Her creator (or more precisely developer) “Dr” is also seen exclaiming with amazement that his developed robot Evelyn is showing exponential performance as it is learning things at a rapid pace.

The ad moves on when the scientist, named as “Dr.” in the ad, receives a text on his mobile device. The message is most probably the bill sent to the customer from his telecommunication provider, Verizon. Evelyn views this and chastises its creator, “Dr” that why is Verizon is still his favourite telecommunication company when another Telco giant, Sprint is providing the almost the same level of services in half the price. The level of service only differs by 1%, but the price is double in the case of Verizon, as per the calculations of the robot. It informs that the network reliability difference between Verizon and sprint is just 1%, but the price difference is huge. Evelyn is quick to observe the situation and analyse the prices offered by both the telecommunication companies. It then directly questions his creator's choice of network and criticises him for choosing and sticking with a wrong telecommunication network.

Moving further, when the “Dr” shows ignorance about this and states that he never gave a thought to this idea, Evelyn teases him and makes fun of him. It also invites his other robot colleagues to join in, and all the artificial intelligently developed robots make fun of their creator. The robots go on one step further when a tiny robot comments “U have got a dumb face” which embarrasses the Dr more, and he feels humiliated. He is shown to be laughing stock of the whole laboratory or office in the hands of his self-created robots.

In the end, the creator of all these robots “Dr” can be seen standing at the Sprint store to switch to a new network. When asked that why he wants to change networks, he told that his co-workers are making fun of him that is why he wants to switch networks.

There are multiple aspects shown in this advertisement which can be divided into both positive and negative categories.

The positive side of the advertisement

The positive side of Sprint 'Evelyn' Super Bowl Commercial 2018 is that firstly, it imparts the knowledge about both the companies and their network reliability difference. The ad makes the general public aware that how Sprint is a better network than Verizon and why customers should consider switching to a better network in order to save their expenses.

Additionally, the ad has been excellently designed using the concept of artificial intelligence which a latest or more of a futuristic concept. The pace at which the technology is making progress, it is highly expected that the situation shown in the ad will come true and human will be working with such super smart robots.

The negative side of the advertisement

Along with the positive aspects, this ad carries some negative aspects with it as well. First of all, the ad shows the character blurting out the name of the competitor openly and pointing out a flaw in their pricing strategy. In international marketing or advertisement policies, it is considered highly unprofessional and unethical to point out and use the name, or even the symbols used by the competitor, in your own advertisement to criticise and mock them. The international standards for marketing and advertisement state that any company should never use the name of their competitors directly, in any case, to put them down (Moriarty, et al., 2014, p.12).

Another negative and long term adverse effect that has been shown in this ad is the dangerous and horrible picture of the future when robots developed by humans themselves will become so powerful and intelligent that they will question the decisions made by humans, even their own creators. The ad shows artificially intelligent robots mocking and making fun of their own creator, which is a little mean, especially the comment “U have a dumb face” looks quite unethical and hurting (Poore, 2018, p. 13).

Did it serve the purpose?

The purpose of every advertisement is very obvious; to promote the product and bring as many sales and customers for the company as it can. The goal behind the Sprint 'Evelyn' Super Bowl Commercial 2018 was the same. It successfully and intelligently plots the idea in the viewers’ mind that he or she is paying a higher amount for the services they are using and being robbed off their precious money for just a difference of 1% network reliability. The ad can successfully re-shape the cognitive, emotional and behavioural patterns of the customers and the company can easily generate many sales by just providing a single fact. The same has been shown in the ad as well.


This ad has the capacity to shape the thinking process of the viewers, especially the customers of the other network mentioned and repeat the same process as carried on by the artificially intelligent robot, Evelyn, observe, analyse and compare.


This ad inevitably triggers the viewer emotionally and makes him or her feel the same way as the Dr in the ad is feeling. A viewer can feel that they are not-so-smart and maybe have made a wrong decision by choosing Verizon, instead of Sprint.


The telecommunication ad can largely shape the behavioural patterns of the viewers by making up their minds for switching the network to Sprint, from Verizon, like it did in the advertisement.


Shortly, the whole analysis of Sprint 'Evelyn' Super Bowl Commercial 2018 can be summed up an intelligent use of mind and technology to promote and create awareness regarding the service the telecommunication company is providing. The ad suggests a smart technique to the customers of another telecommunication service provider to cut off their expenses for telecommunication by half and save their money by switching to Sprint, which is a highly reliable and affordable network service provider. The only weakness is that using the name of the competitor sounds a little unprofessional and unethical and it can be improved.


Armstrong, G., Adam, S., Denize, S. and Kotler, P., 2014. Principles of marketing. Pearson Australia.

Babin, B.J. and Zikmund, W.G., 2015. Exploring marketing research. Cengage Learning.

Ellis, J.R., Katiyar, S. and Smolin, P.M., TURN Inc, 2014. Enhanced online advertising system. U.S. Patent 8,768,766.

Lovelock, C. and Patterson, P., 2015. Services marketing. Pearson Australia.

Malhotra, N.K. and Peterson, M., 2014. Basic marketing research. Pearson.

Moriarty, S., Mitchell, N.D., Wells, W.D., Crawford, R., Brennan, L. and Spence-Stone, R., 2014. Advertising: Principles and practice. Pearson Australia.

Percy, L. and Elliott, R.H., 2016. Strategic advertising management. Oxford University Press.

Poore, W., 2018. The Use of Humor in Super Bowl Advertising: A Content Analysis (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska at Omaha).

Sprint 'Evelyn' Super Bowl Commercial 2018. (2018). [video] https://youtu.be/Oqddq2Pw1d8: Drago5.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 6 Words: 1800

Interim Assessment - Case Study


Interim assessment - Case study

keyarah Apolonio

[Name of the Institution]

Interim assessment - Case study

Lush Positioning Strategy

Lush positions itself as a luxury brand offering superior products and services to its customers. The overall positioning of the brand is luxurious, colourful, indulgent, ethical, fun and pampering. The quality of Lush products is perceived as high as it responds to the personal novel needs of its customers and enhances their experiences. Customers are prepared to pay for the products they believe as superior and premium. The price of Lush products is higher than that of other cosmetics and related products available in the market but less than some other players as Body Shop. Lush have their own brand stores, they do not distribute to the local sellers, and utilizes exclusive distribution to uphold the high-quality image of the brand.

The retail outlets that portray a positive and decent image preserve this quality perception. The stores are distinctive and have a deli layout, having soap bars displayed in the form of chunks, facemask in the cold pots in tables like salad bars. This in-store experience is an essential element of the brand positioning strategy. Customers touch and smell the products and samples displayed at the stores and this in-store design is associated with the positioning of the brand. The “Lush” experience created by the company at its touch points builds a positive positioning image of the brand as a pampering, fun and guilt-free experience for its consumers.

The views feelings events and judgments formed by the overall experience of customers are interconnected and make an experience a long-term memory eventually creating the loyalty for its customers owing to the consistency in brand values, store image and product attributes. An analysis of the strategic approaches for global brand positioning reveals that Lush espouses homogenous market position for all of its customers in the world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"ROU2w6iJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hassan and Craft, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Hassan and Craft, 2012)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2046,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/5K3YKBJE"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/5K3YKBJE"],"itemData":{"id":2046,"type":"article-journal","title":"Examining world market segmentation and brand positioning strategies","container-title":"Journal of Consumer marketing","page":"344-356","volume":"29","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Hassan","given":"Salah S."},{"family":"Craft","given":"Stephen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hassan and Craft, 2012). Lush customers all over the world are environmentally sensible, fun loving and brand conscious, ready to pay premium prices for the handmade quality products.

Lush Target Market

The target market of Lush is mainly women aged 18 to 45 and the majority of Lush products are targeted the women of this age group, though Lush products are not gendered specific. This is due to the reason that Lush products emphasize the beauty and skin care mainly for women. Lush target market also consists of customers who are willing to try new things and share their feedback on the blogs, social media websites and different platforms. Customers buy the products because of the smell, colour and uniqueness. In addition, one segment of the target market of Lush is the group of customers who look deeper into the company's policies and business practices. Lush products are freshly made and they hire people instead of machines. Every part of the product is taken into consideration regarding the impacts it produces on the environment and society.

Most of the Lush products are free of packaging and naked. The target market knows that Lush understands the needs of their customers and do the right thing. Therefore, the Lush customers are those who are more environmentally and communally aware. They have belief in brand that their products support a good cause and they can participate in that cause by consuming Lush products. Most of these customers also want to become part of campaigns in favour of environmental protection and eliminating animal harm. Lush assists such customers by allowing them to take part in these campaigns.

Lush also attracts young customers to whom it appeals by using attractive smells, colours and fun packaging. Walking to a Lush shop seems like entering a candy shop. In addition, the friendly customer service focused on customer care and satisfaction attracts the middle to high-class customers to this brand. The stores are mostly located in the posh and stylish areas to display the brand image, targeted at middle and high-class people. Overall, the target market of Lush consist of young and middle-aged women, eco-friendly and conscious consumers belonging to the middle/upper class.

My Attitude towards Lush Products

The tricomponent model was suggested by Rosenberg and Hanland and this model comprises of three elements in the psychological process, former is cognition, second is impact and the third one is conation and action ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1b1cf2b00v","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Chih et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Chih et al., 2015)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2047,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/BBH5P9AV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/BBH5P9AV"],"itemData":{"id":2047,"type":"article-journal","title":"From positive and negative cognition perspectives to explore e-shoppers’ real purchase behavior: an application of tricomponent attitude model","container-title":"Information Systems and e-Business Management","page":"495-526","volume":"13","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Chih","given":"Wen-Hai"},{"family":"Liou","given":"Dah-Kwei"},{"family":"Hsu","given":"Li-Chun"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Chih et al., 2015). The cognitive component is based on the knowledge already stored about an object. The effective component deals with the emotions and feelings about the brand or object while the conative component deals with intention to take action or behave with respect to the brand or attitude object. This model largely evaluates how these attitudes are shaped CITATION Apo19 \l 1033 (Apolonio, 2019).

Being a girl always interested in taking care of myself, I have always been involved in trying new products related to bath and body and skin care. “Me time” is the only way for me to relax, my experience with Lush products have been very good as always, though I switch between brands. After using Lush products including their bath bombs, cleaners and shampoo bars. My attitude towards organic and natural products of Lush has always been very positive. My experience with the company always remains in my mind whenever I seek some new skincare and bath related product.

Whenever I visit the Lush store and get in touch with any of the touch points with the brand I get excited and willing to try the new products with yummy colours and innovative products. Getting in contact with any of the touch points reminds me of my wonderful experience with the brand and excites me about the new products. My positive experiences, attitudes and emotional arousals linked with the brand persuade me to buy the products. Even if I do not buy, I always develop intentions to buy Lush products for the reason that they appeal to me so much.

If Lush were to release a campaign with a call to action such as ‘Pick one up now, you deserve an indulgence', which of the three Freudian systems would it be appealing to? Explain with reference to Freudian theory.

The science of marketing has been established from other fields such as sociology, psychology, economics and social psychology. The psychoanalytic theory of personality developed by Sigmund Freud has major implications for the field of marketing ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a1c9vcopggl","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\uc0\\u8220{}Consumer Behavior Theories: Psychoanalytic Theory - Husson University,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)}","plainCitation":"(“Consumer Behavior Theories: Psychoanalytic Theory - Husson University,” n.d.)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2050,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/9KSCXRME"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/9KSCXRME"],"itemData":{"id":2050,"type":"webpage","title":"Consumer Behavior Theories: Psychoanalytic Theory - Husson University","URL":"https://online.husson.edu/consumer-behavior-psychoanalytic-theory/","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,28]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“Consumer Behavior Theories: Psychoanalytic Theory - Husson University,” n.d.). It distributes human psyche into three elements named as id, ego and superego. ID operates on the principle of pleasure and is denoted to as the unconscious mind. Ego, on the other hand, is the conscious mind and it develops from ID, it provides one with the sense of continuity and identity. The third one is superego, which deals with the ethical and moral extents; it affects the ego based on morality parameters. If Lush is going to initiate a campaign having words, "Pick one up now you deserve and indulgence”, it will appeal to the “ID” from Freudian system.

Since ID is the subconscious mind and it works on the principle of pleasure, therefore it is responsible for impulsive and basic decision-making. The slogan employed by Lush would directly appeal to the ID and it will trigger an emotional response. Word utilized in the slogan such as "indulge" and "deserve", recaps consumer of the pleasant experience and caters to the subconscious mind. Other words act as a call to action mechanism and trigger an obedient response in most of the consumers, such as “now” and “pickup”. Marketers have used this very popular marketing strategy across the world. It is clearly visible from such a marketing campaign that Lush is not reluctant to address their customers who believe in the brand as the responsible and honest one. Customers will respond to such call to action by the brand and such a strategy will be successful in drawing the attention of potential customers to the brand appealing the "ID".

Difference between actual and ideal self-image

Consumers always create an image of themselves based on the synopsis of their thoughts and feelings with respect to their self-image. These self-images not only reflect the shopper's personality but also impacts the buying choices made by them. Self-image can be of many types as identified by the researchers and marketers such as actual self-image, ideal self-image, social self-image and expected self-image etc ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a14gpkff7cq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Abdallat, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Abdallat, 2012)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2048,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/KXWJMWTL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/KXWJMWTL"],"itemData":{"id":2048,"type":"article-journal","title":"Actual self-image, ideal self-image and the relation between satisfaction and destination loyalty","container-title":"J Tourism Hospit","page":"2167-0269.1000102","volume":"1","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Abdallat","given":"Muhannad MA"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Abdallat, 2012). An actual self-image is the opinion of buyers about themselves. This perception does not have to be obvious to others and it sticks to one's thoughts. It is highly influenced by some factors such as media, family and friends, etc. On the contrary, an ideal self-image is the way shoppers want to perceive themselves or wish they saw themselves. An ideal self-image is also impacted by the cultural values, role models, things one appreciates.

Consumers always prefer products that have congruity with their self-image, including the actual self, ideal self and ideal social self-images. Lush has created a brand image to link the concept of ideal and actual self-image to ensure that customers can develop an association with the brand. Its slogans and tag lines make a reference to making moms proud, having answerability and trusting that consumer can never be wrong. It creates an image of an honest brand, that feels very pleasant and interesting to consumers. Customers whose ideal and actual self-image link with these values possessed by Lush are more attracted to it.

Customers view themselves as honest buying from a brand that cares for the environment and society, creates fun and excitement in self-care and bathing and fills life with perfumes and fragrances. I always buy from the brand that makes me believe who I am and help me to achieve who I want to be. I feel beautiful and happy when I take care of myself and believe that using skin care product will help me to achieve how I want to look, and it makes me buy these skin care products.

Lush customers as consumer innovators

There are different factors that make a consumer an innovator. Innovator consumers are those who have a creative mindset towards the products and services or a brand. Such consumers are inspired by the innovations involved in the products. Most of the Lush customers are inspired by the natural and handmade products. Though Lush customers also include consumers who are willing to give a try to new products and have a mindset of buying new stuff ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2h24nlbmvp","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Eun Park et al., 2010)","plainCitation":"(Eun Park et al., 2010)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2054,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/ZMY4FYDP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/ZMY4FYDP"],"itemData":{"id":2054,"type":"article-journal","title":"Consumer innovativeness and shopping styles","container-title":"Journal of Consumer Marketing","page":"437-446","volume":"27","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Eun Park","given":"Ji"},{"family":"Yu","given":"Jun"},{"family":"Xin Zhou","given":"Joyce"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Eun Park et al., 2010). Different aspects related to Lush products influence consumer’s buying decisions such as its environmental policies, no animal testing, charity works etc. Only those consumers dare to buy new products by Lush who are innovators and want to experiment with new things, despite the fact that they are not tested on animals.

The marketing messages by Lush are centred on the words such as "New Arrivals", "Limited Edition", "Now in Stores", and "More". These messages are related to the new addition of flavours to the existing product line and freshly made products which urge buyers to go for a purchase. In addition, innovative customers make purchases to become part of environmentally safe products. One such example is of Lush whale soap in Australia to support sea shepherd which inspires customers to support a cause by buying Lush products. This is how Lush attracts its customers to support any new cause with a new addition product which is purchased and supported by the innovators.

Innovators are familiar with the quality and feature Lush or some other offers in its products and they dare to make purchases of new innovative products. In view of the advertisements developed by the company, the message in advertisements is focused on product characteristics and it emphasizes that product is an addition to the existing range with a unique fragrance. On the other hand, if customers are non-innovators not much focus is placed on newness in the products and its characteristics.

Lush Brand Personality

Brand Personality is interpreted by the human features that the advertisers and marketers use to attract the customers towards a brand CITATION Key19 \l 1033 (Apolonio, 2019). The features of actual and potential customers of the brand are allocated to the brand and the brand personality is generally referred to as the brand style, values it possesses, brand name and its logo etc. Aaker considered that a brand could work like an individual or a character. Since customers exploit the brand personality as a way to demonstrate their own personality, therefore, marketers are not publicizing the product but the brand personality that helps customer to achieve their own desired personality. Aaker brand personality framework describes the profile and qualities of a brand in terms of five core dimensions that include and different aspects of sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness and different aspects of personality that comes from these core areas ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"a2ptq3vstiv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Schiffman et al., 2010)","plainCitation":"(Schiffman et al., 2010)"},"citationItems":[{"id":2052,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/6AU8IXLL"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/FGhKhGPG/items/6AU8IXLL"],"itemData":{"id":2052,"type":"article-journal","title":"Consumer behaviour","author":[{"family":"Schiffman","given":"Leon"},{"family":"O'Cass","given":"Aron"},{"family":"Paladino","given":"Angela"},{"family":"D'Alessandro","given":"Steven"},{"family":"Bednall","given":"David"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Schiffman et al., 2010).

With reference to the Aaker brand personality framework and the case, Lush communicates the brand personality of Sincerity, for being authentic, joyful, and down to earth. In addition, the brand brings excitement for its customers with attractive and fun colours, new fragrances, by being daring to innovate and imaginative. Last, of all, the brand illustrates competence as Lush is intelligent, successful and reliable. Since Lush is famous for being environmentally friendly and honest for its social concerns regarding human and animal rights and using organic ingredients. In this way, it assists its customers to achieve this personality by buying Lush products and participating in the campaigns. Its limited edition products and Emotional Brilliance line of cosmetics demonstrate its brand personality. By its slogans and tag lines, it displays an honest, pleasant and kind personality to the customers by making moms’ product, considering that customer is always veracious and having a sense of answerability.

Current situation of the brand

The current research on the positioning strategy and target market of the brand, it can be arbitrated that the key target market and positioning strategy of the brand remains the same. However, since the brand is growing and becoming global the geographical segmentation is changing but the company adopts a universal approach and targets customers who are committed to ethical buying and are obsessed with natural and pure products. Lush know the core values of its buyers and incorporates accountability over a luxurious and classy brand image. Lush adopts the strategy of competitive positioning by making organic products using fruits and vegetables like ingredients.

Lush achieves an edge due to its image as an environmentally friendly brand, which produces minimal waste in the form of packaging. Products do not contain any animal byproduct and can be used by all the vegans. Lush is also committed to its manufacturing process, its products are made by hand and ingredients are obtained from the local communities. Overall, the positioning strategy of the brand remains the same and its target market also shares the same attributes primarily that are females, mostly vegan and cherishing socially responsible businesses.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Abdallat, M.M., 2012. Actual self-image, ideal self-image and the relation between satisfaction and destination loyalty. J Tour. Hosp. 1, 2167–0269.1000102.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Apolonio, K., 2019. Topic 3 Learning Guide, s.l.: AIB Learning Hub.

Apolonio, K., 2019. Topic 5 Learning Guide, s.l.: AIB Learning Hub.

Chih, W.-H., Liou, D.-K., Hsu, L.-C., 2015. From positive and negative cognition perspectives to explore e-shoppers' real purchase behaviour: an application of the tricomponent attitude model. Inf. Syst. E-Bus. Manag. 13, 495–526.

Consumer Behavior Theories: Psychoanalytic Theory - Husson University [WWW Document], n.d. URL https://online.husson.edu/consumer-behavior-psychoanalytic-theory/ (accessed 5.28.19).

Eun Park, J., Yu, J., Xin Zhou, J., 2010. Consumer innovativeness and shopping styles. J. Consum. Mark. 27, 437–446.

Hassan, S.S., Craft, S., 2012. Examining world market segmentation and brand positioning strategies. J. Consum. Mark. 29, 344–356.

Schiffman, L., O’Cass, A., Paladino, A., D’Alessandro, S., Bednall, D., 2010. Consumer behaviour.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

Jennybel's Group Family Day Care

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of Instructor]



Jennybel's Group Family Day Care

Are you a working parent and struggling to find a daycare center for your child or stuck in finding a right daycare center that offers quality care at a reasonable cost? If yes then we are here to solve this issue. Jennybel’s Group Family Day Care is the right choice for you as it is licensed by the Network State Office of Children and Family Services. Our center is located at 2466 Lyvere street Apt 2B Bronx New York.

What is Jennybel’s Group Family Day Care?

Jennybel’s daycare center provides early childhood education as well as quality care for children.

We have highly qualified staff and approved educators that will provide care and education to your child.

Our curriculum is structured around four key elements of development. These elements are Social, Emotional, Psychological and Intellectual.

All these elements combined will ensure your child’s growth both mentally and physically.

How your family can benefit from Jennybel’s Groups Family Day Care?

The home-based setting will provide your child with a safe and secure learning environment that will facilitae in your child early development.

Research done on early childcare proves that strong bonds between children and their caretakers can improve their learning ability. Keeping this in mind, our daycare center environment helps in facilitating strong bonds that will further promote the effective learning of your child.

We offer our services at 7:00 Am to 6:00 Pm. However, our timimngs can be flexible to ensure parents and gaurdians convenience. Also, we provide all meals.

We aim to promote cultural diversity in our community and we are bilingual.

Furthermore, unlike other daycare centers, we accept HRA Vouchers and CDA.

 If you want to enroll your child in Jennybel’s Group Family Day Care center then please feel free to contact us on our Gmail account (Jennybelj23@gmail.com). You can also call us at (718)915-9741 or (345)591-0393.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Journal And Essay - Consumer Behavior

BP Oil Spill

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Journal Entry

Despite the fact that there has been lot of discussion in this regard, Marijuana is banned in the United States. In the recent weeks, the government has again reiterated their commitment that the Marijuana is not going to be legalized in the United States. One of the reasons that there has been a reluctance on the part of the government is due to the fact that as compared to the country like Canada, where regulations are easier to implement due to the small size of the population, in the United States it is going to difficult to implement the control. There is negative impact of this legislation though as the people are still actively using the Marijuana and due to the fact that it is not legal, people are supposed to buy from the black market which has its fair share of the demerits. What is needed to be done is that the balanced approach is needed to be adopted in terms of the way this thing is going to be controlled. Most polls regarding Americans and their pot use hover around the 40% mark for having tried marijuana at least once. This is compared to the 16% of Americans who have tried cocaine, which is obviously a significantly lower percentage. Marijuana is becoming more and more ubiquitous every year despite being less addictive than coffee.

BP Oil Spill

Handling of the Situation by BP

Looking at the way BP handled this whole situation; it can be assumed that the response was rather lacklustre on their part. For the first few days, they were not willing to take enough responsibility of the incident and there was certain effort to ensure that they downplay the incident. When they realized that the situation is going overboard, they started to blame the external stakeholders for the whole situation. They started to blame their contractors as well as the other partners and showed that the safety and security protocols that are setup by them are adequate enough to take care of this situation.

When they realized that these actions are not doing any effect on their goodwill, their next step was to make sure that they opted for the PR campaign to show that how they are going to make it right. Even then there was lot of lip service and no concrete steps were taken to resolve the impending issues of the safety and security. In the hindsight, it can be said that their whole response was rather reactive to the whole situation and they could have handled in a much better manner. It was a good lesson in business ethics.

Handling of the Incident by The Environmental Agencies

The response that came from the environmental agencies was far from ideal in this situation. As a matter of fact, it reiterated the whole thing that how lacklustre their strategy is when it comes to making sure that they safeguard and raise concern about the situation. And again, they were also reactive when it comes to the way they handled the whole situation. So, this was another aspect that missed out by them during the course of the whole process. The other thing that the whole incident showed that these organizations and agencies are not doing anything more other than educate the stakeholders and they don’t have any control or authority over the way things are supposed to be handled at the broader level within the organization. The role of the environmental agencies was also criticized in a sense that they were not quite willing to make sure that blame the BP due to the huge business clout that it owns and instead there was an effort on their part to blame the other organizational partners for the whole incident. Again, the incident raised question mark about the security protocols that are needed to be followed at the organization end.

Reaction by the Federal and State Government

In some ways, one of the reasons that the damage was being controlled and the certain degree of hold was gained to the situation was the instance when the interventions by the government were carried out. They were the first one that had the resources and the will to make sure that not only the extent of the damage was being realized, but also to make sure that the solution that is being reached is such that should allow long term resolution of the issues. The resources were being used, some of the loopholes in the laws were being looked at and effort was being made to revaluate some of the business practices that is being carried out by these organizations. The Spill Response Fund was also setup to make sure that the consensus was developed among all the stakeholders how the situation was going to be handled at the particular point of time. Not only that, the other major aspect of the whole response from the government was the condemnation and efforts for the rehabilitation of these people at the particular point of time.

Change in the Public Opinion of the Company

At that time, due to the image that was created by BP, the initial reaction was such that BP is actually the victim of the whole situation and it is the partners and the other stakeholders who are causing such damage to the reputation to the organization. The other thing that was being done at that point of time. The strong media campaign also played its role in the whole situation. With the passage of time though, people started to realize the gravity of the situation and the extent to which the damage is being caused. In this day and age of the alternate media, it is quite hard for the organizations to completely hide the truth from the people, and due to that, people started to realize some of the issues that were happening with the organization and what are some of the possible strategies that can be devised to make sure that these long standing issues are being resolved. The other thing that is needed to be kept in mind is that is that, the environmental bodies and the reaction on the part of the United States Government showed that all was not right with BP and thus this incident played a major part in swaying the opinion of the people against them. BP also bought online ads that pop up when people search for information about the oil spill on Google and Yahoo. The ads, which link to BP's own oil-response sites, typically appear above or to the right of other search results. BP said the idea was to help people on the Gulf find the right forms to fill out quickly and effectively.


Bond, D. (2013). Governing disaster: the political life of the environment during the BP oil spill. Cultural Anthropology, 28(4), 694-715.

Horowitz, A. (2014). The BP oil spill and the end of Empire, Louisiana. Southern Cultures, 20(3), 6-23.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Lesson Plan


The consumer is any entity mainly the individual who purchases and uses products or services of a company or business is known as the consumer. In other words, a consumer is a person or individual who decides to purchase an economic item (product or services) for use or consumption (Kotler, & Armstrong, 2014). Consumers purchase and use both online and in-store products to use for the short and long term.

Types of Consumers

There are different types of consumers. They are different based on their preferences of buying, psychological, and other factors. But the main types of consumers are but not only the listed below.

Seasonal: Seasonal consumers are one who buys products and services only in a particular season or seasons while they do not purchase and use products and services on a permanent basis. The example is the buyer of clothes in summer and winter.

Impulse Buyer: They are the consumers who desire to have a product or service purchased and utilized. These customers are mainly found as loyal and permanent users of a product (Seth, 2014).

Discount Driven/Price Buyer: These buyers include all of the individuals who always look for special discounts and packages offered by the companies and businesses for a product or service. These buyers purchase products when they are offered discounts and price packages (Seth, 2014).

Need-Based Buyers: Need-Based buyers are the buyers of products and services only in the case when they require that product or services. Otherwise and usually they do not purchase some products.

Marketing (Shared Body of Information)

Marketing is the process that involves different activities that are taken into action to market and promote a product or service. It is a shared body of information that communicates almost all information about a product and service it promotes (Grewal, et.al, 2018). The activities of marketing mainly include advertising, promotion, selling, as well as delivering products.

4 P’s vs. the 4 C’s

4C's is a new and advanced version of the traditional marketing mix. In 4P's, the company thinks from their perspectives by analyzing their product, price, place, and promotion. While in the 4C's, the company or business thinks from the perspectives of its customers. It is almost the same but in 4C's companies, businesses, and marketers look at the Customers' Value, Cost, Convenience (of product and service for the customer) and Communication (Ros, 2014).

Competitive Advantage

Competitive Advantage is the asset that every business entity tries to have over the rivals. Competitive Advantage is the position or condition that enables and puts a company or business in a superior business position than the competitors. Several factors like low prices, high quality, better customer experience, etc. lead to developing a competitive advantage (CFI, 2019).

Giving away the products and services is the process through which companies and businesses promote their products and services. Here, they offer discounts, packages and additional items (Sukhraj, 2017).

10 Questions Test

What is the difference between customer and consumer?

Why companies should focus on customers instead of consumers?

What are the comparative benefits of 4C’s than 4P’s?

What are the factors that differentiate 4C’s from 4P’s?

What is the difference between marketing and advertising?

Does keeping a competitive advantage at hand cost more?

What are the issues that may lead to the loss of competitive advantage of a company?

Why companies should focus on marketing rather than advertising or promotion?

What are the strategies, companies use to satisfy loyal customers?

How to differentiate different types of customers and buyers of the same products?


CFI. (2019). Competitive Advantage - Learn How a Competitive Advantage Works. Retrieved 4 December 2019, from https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/strategy/competitive-advantage/

Grewal, R., Saini, A., Kumar, A., Dwyer, F. R., & Dahlstrom, R. (2018). Marketing Channel Management by Multinational Corporations in Foreign Markets. Journal of Marketing, 82(4), 49-69.

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2014). Company and Marketing Marketing Strategy: Partnering to Build Customer Relationships. In Principles of Marketing (15th ed., pp. 50-55). Upper Saddle, N.J: Pearson.

Ros, P. (2014). Marketing Mix–The 4Ps and 4Cs. Retrieved 4 December 2019, from https://elokmagozian.wordpress.com/marketing-mix-the-4ps-and-4cs/

Seth, T. (2014). Consumers: Types and Importance of Consumers. Retrieved 4 December 2019, from http://www.economicsdiscussion.net/articles/consumers-types-and-importance-of-consumers/2032

Sukhraj, R. (2017). Best Ways to Keep a Customer Happy & Improve Customer Retention. Retrieved 4 December 2019, from https://www.impactbnd.com/blog/the-importance-of-keeping-your-customers-happy

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Logistics Journal Article Critique

Logistics Journal Article Critique

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Logistics Journal Article Critique

Miao, Z., Cai, S., & Xu, D. (2012). Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 18–27.

Studies on the external matters that affect logistics and supply chain management in an organization, e.g., the situation, philanthropy, diversity, and human rights has evolved, up to now, of the individual test of these aspects. These issues have been explored by many studies, however, if this investigation from the national corporate social responsibility profession, too as information from comprehensive talks with logistics executives are analyzed, one is able to see that these apparently isolated issues have similar features that supply chain managers and logisticians are able to achieve by applying a much wider, organization-wide approach to CSR ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RbmbUatQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Carter & Jennings, 2002)","plainCitation":"(Carter & Jennings, 2002)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1033,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JLAIHMTV"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JLAIHMTV"],"itemData":{"id":1033,"type":"article-journal","title":"Logistics social responsibility: an integrative framework","container-title":"Journal of business logistics","page":"145-180","volume":"23","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Carter","given":"Craig R."},{"family":"Jennings","given":"Marianne M."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2002"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Carter & Jennings, 2002). A number of studies and literature on the topic of logistics social responsibility (LSR) is presented with the ultimate aim to guide higher management solve social responsibility matters and offering the direction for upcoming research campaigns. This paper seeks to summarize and critique an article covering the similar concept with respect to Chinese firms. it unearths the antecedents of LSR among Chinese corporations.

The article titled, “Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms”, by Miao, Cai, & Xu, discusses the system underlying logistics social responsibility (LSR) in China. This study is grounded on the five-dimensional framework of LSR: supplier, customer, environment, employee and philanthropy aspects that were developed by some Chinese researchers. Based on this framework the study proposes that these dimensions of LSR in Chinese firms are based on business ethics, suppliers, clan culture, competitors, pressures from customers and the policies and regulations ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"1PjnLicz","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Miao, Cai, & Xu, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Miao, Cai, & Xu, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1032,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"itemData":{"id":1032,"type":"article-journal","title":"Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms","container-title":"International Journal of Production Economics","page":"18-27","volume":"140","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Miao","given":"Zhaowei"},{"family":"Cai","given":"Shun"},{"family":"Xu","given":"Di"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miao, Cai, & Xu, 2012). For the sake of this study, a survey was conducted in the Chinese firms and 162 of firms participated in the study. The hypothesis was supported by the results and in the end, the article discussed the implications of its results and findings.

In order to test the hypothesis of the article, the researchers begin by providing an extensive literature review on the topic. With the increase in emphasis on CSR, the concept of LSR has also got significance in the emerging literature. The article supports the idea that supply managers must also be mindful of this idea of cultural obligation, as mentioned. Remarkably, while CSR has long been explored in the bigger field of management, the area of supply chain management has still to find the progress of the broad model. Alternatively, these topics have been analyzed individually and include investigation on reverse logistics and situation supply chain management; variety within the business's supply force and the wider supply chain. Hence this article makes an addition to the literature by highlighting some facts and aspects concerning LSR ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FAviCO09","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","plainCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1032,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"itemData":{"id":1032,"type":"article-journal","title":"Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms","container-title":"International Journal of Production Economics","page":"18-27","volume":"140","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Miao","given":"Zhaowei"},{"family":"Cai","given":"Shun"},{"family":"Xu","given":"Di"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miao et al., 2012).

Coming towards the evaluation of the article, the title clearly demonstrates the purpose and key objective the study aims to achieve. Furthermore, it acquaints the audience about what to expect from the article. The abstract of the article shares the key details about it, including the background, the aim of the study, hypothesis, and methods employed for the research and the final outcomes as well. It also follows the precise format of an article abstract. The introduction also ends with highlighting the purpose of purpose ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"dC6iA1PH","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","plainCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1032,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"itemData":{"id":1032,"type":"article-journal","title":"Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms","container-title":"International Journal of Production Economics","page":"18-27","volume":"140","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Miao","given":"Zhaowei"},{"family":"Cai","given":"Shun"},{"family":"Xu","given":"Di"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miao et al., 2012). Since China differs from the Western world, this article explored the precursors of LSR in specifically Chinese firms. The study is grounded on another study that is credit with the development of a five-dimensional framework of LSR and this study is one of few of those studies based on some empirical framework. The work of other authors is confirmed by the study and then adopted as a ground for this research. One of the worth mentioning factors about the article is that the authors of the study give full credit to the researchers of the framework and elaborates that the framework it has used has been empirically verified through a large-scale survey. In addition, all the discussion in the article is relevant to the topic and the domain of the research.

Concerning the research method used by the study, it is also relevant to the topic. The survey was used to collect data from the participants of the study. Firm-level data was obtained since the CSR of 162 firms had to be studied. For the purpose of eliminating response bias in the data, t-tests were conducted so that the bias may not influence the research findings. The authors of this study have also credited other researchers and authors for their efforts and suggestions if any they have employed in this study ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"RxA6Za1u","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","plainCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1032,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"itemData":{"id":1032,"type":"article-journal","title":"Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms","container-title":"International Journal of Production Economics","page":"18-27","volume":"140","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Miao","given":"Zhaowei"},{"family":"Cai","given":"Shun"},{"family":"Xu","given":"Di"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miao et al., 2012). After the data collection, the data analysis was made employing a valid methodology. First of all, the convergent and discriminant validity was established of the multiple-item scale. Different research models were tested using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) using LISREL. Along with that, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was utilized to examine the structural models. In this way, the reliability and validity of the study were enhanced.

In addition to that, the authors have cited the most pertinent literature and studies. No websites and non-credible sources were used as part of this study as reveled from the analysis and close reading of the article. The study arrived at a conclusion that business ethics, suppliers, clan culture, competitors, pressures from customers and the policies and regulations are the key factors that significantly impact the LSR of Chinese companies ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FAviCO09","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","plainCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1032,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"itemData":{"id":1032,"type":"article-journal","title":"Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms","container-title":"International Journal of Production Economics","page":"18-27","volume":"140","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Miao","given":"Zhaowei"},{"family":"Cai","given":"Shun"},{"family":"Xu","given":"Di"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miao et al., 2012). In one way or another, all the factors that authors hypothesized to have an impact on the Chinese firms, proved to have some impact. The article, however, emphasizes its findings that the six factors and mainly business ethics and clan culture highly influences the LSR practices in an organization. But these antecedents have also been covered in some earlier studies. Consequently, this article only sheds light on the differentiated effect of these, alongside assessing the influence on each dimension of LSR from the five-dimensional framework.

The findings of the study are also testified in a consistent and clear format. It seems like the article has covered all the aspects of data and has not omitted anything that could have influenced the research findings. The article has also acknowledged the limitations of its study such as it claimed it failed to discover the inner and external drivers of LSR. Secondly, the study has ignored the cost side of implementing the LSR, the sample was limited and small. All these limitations have been accredited and authors have given viable reasons for that.

Overall, the authors have attained their objective by developing the hypothesis and analyzing it after a thorough process of data collection and assessment. Throughout the paper, they have remained objective and backed their statements by some valid references and work of scholars. This study has also created room for cross-cultural comparisons of the literature in the subject area of LSR ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"FAviCO09","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","plainCitation":"(Miao et al., 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1032,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/JBJLNMKK"],"itemData":{"id":1032,"type":"article-journal","title":"Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms","container-title":"International Journal of Production Economics","page":"18-27","volume":"140","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Miao","given":"Zhaowei"},{"family":"Cai","given":"Shun"},{"family":"Xu","given":"Di"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Miao et al., 2012). With the emerging interest in social responsibility in logistics, this research also holds some managerial implications such as good business ethics and clan culture are pivotal for the firms to do well in LSR. Furthermore, it guides the role of regulations for a firm to be socially responsible in its supply chain practices.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Carter, C. R., & Jennings, M. M. (2002). Logistics social responsibility: An integrative framework. Journal of Business Logistics, 23(1), 145–180.

Miao, Z., Cai, S., & Xu, D. (2012). Exploring the antecedents of logistics social responsibility: A focus on Chinese firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 18–27.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Long Paper #3


Professor’s Name:




Description of Characters

Mr Fredricksen was a jolly, happy and enthusiastic man up until Ellie ended up contracting a disease because of the old age and ended up dying. At the moment he lives alone in his life and became rude ending up not making friends because of the attitude. Most of the people he had issues with were businessmen constructing the city close to his house. On a certain day a boy by the male Russel who went and knocked on Mr Frericksen’s door seeking to know if he needed any kind of assistance. Fredricksen and Ellie come across Doug, a talking dog character working for Muntz who committed his life looking for a monster bird called Kevin.

Communication Events in the movie

Fredricksen communicates with the businessmen on the need for selling his house, an issue he would hear nothing about. The communication by the Businessman to Fredricksen trying to convince him of the idea of selling his house still fails. Fredricksen also interacts with Russel who wanted to know if he needed any kind of assistance. Doug also communicates with Gama and Alpha on the intention for leading a bird to them. Gama and Alpha also respond by showing that they have received the message thus the communication process is completed.

Mr Fredricksen sends a communication by sending Ellie a message to show his love for her. The fight between Fredricksen and Muntz sent a communication of hatred between them, something that cannot be resolved because of the level their hatred has reached.

Ellie also communicates that she has affecting Fredricksen by kissing him on the cheeks and receiving his message readily without any kind of rejection. Kevin also communicates that he loves chocolate by tasting chocolate and more is offered by Muntz.

Communication theory

The communication theory begins with Doug sending a message to Alpha and Gamma communicating that he is aware of the location of the bird and he would send them the details in a short while. In line with Berlo’s model, based on the premise of a message, sender, receiver and channel, it provides a theory process whereby feedback is availed by the end of a communication process. By analyzing the message sent whereby Doug represents the sender the place where the bird is located is the message as well as the time it will be sent to Gama and Alpha. The proponent offers a communication on the place the bird is by the use of a tracking device put on the collar of the bird and can be tracked through the channel that Muntz . The technology invented enabled the dogs communicate with one another through the channel Gamma and Alpha could be able to get through a receiver radio. The feedback got by the two helps in confirming that Alpha and Gamma indeed received the message.

Moreover, Berlo’s communication theory, the movie provides us with information on who Mr. Fredricksen is. His hatred for the yet to be constructed city within the neighborhoods, especially close to his house. His attitude clearly communicates that there is unwillingness as treating the Businessman in a cold manner is shown by his act of refusing to sell his house and land that can be used for construction. He achieves this by even neglecting offering greetings to them as a protest against being convinced to leave his house. On Mr Businessman coming across Fredricksen’s reluctant position receives his message that he was not willing to cooperate with with their plans thereby sending a communication showing dislikes towards Mr. Fredreicksen. It can be noted that in Berlo’s model the sender and the sources are at the same level as communication goes on. In this regard, both Fredericksen and Businessman are on the same level since they both intend to hold their hard stances and feel hatred for each other.

In addition, Mr. Fredricksen expresses his love towards Ellie, by sending presents in order to lift her spirits. By looking at the compassion, he gave a gift that was represents a message of concern he was showing. Ellie on her part showed her fair share of the communication by willing to receive her present and express her feelings to Fredricksen by giving him a kiss on the cheeks while hugging him. In a nutshell, Berlo’s theory gives a lot of concern on the emotional bit of the message.

Fredricksen and Muntz’s encounter turns into a fight. Berlo’s theory is directly exhibited the moment Muntz displays his intentions clearly by showing an intent of having an exchange for the bird. Muntz also directly sends Fredricksen a message by pointing a sword at him and making his intention well known by knocking various objects around him. By missing and aim and the amount of effort with which he drove the sword, conveys a message that he had a strong desire for Fredricksen the moment he felt the cut of the blade on his face. He gets the message given actions are better than words. It this confirms that he intended to hit him in return. Going by Schramm’s model, it can also be applied in the entire scene. In schramm’s model, an encoder is used for sending a message through which it can be received and decoding done later in a bid to interpret it. The encoder offers an interpretation for getting the decoder feedback. In this case, Muntz is the encoder and encodes his message of willing to end Fredricksen’s life in exchange for a bird. He gets receives the message and believe it threatens his life thereby exposing Muntz’s evil plans. He responds by planning a payback by attacking Muntz.

Kevin’s love for chocolate also helps in displaying Berlo’s theory. Kevin communicates by sending a message that he likes chocolate by eating and tasting chocolates. The moment Russell notices that Kevin likes chocolate, he receives this message and gives a feedback offering Kevin more chocolates and should follow them.

Through Schramm’s model, it can be identified that the scene whereby Mr Fredricksen chases Russel when he went knocking on his door. The encoder in this message is when Fredricksen sends then encodes the message of unwillingness as well as lack of interest by saying Russell must find the bird in his neighborhood. Mr Fredricksen’s intention is meant to chase Russell. He receives and decode a message as a means of assisting the old people and complied with the order given. In addition, there is need for noting that Schramm’s model mean lying in the intention and a way the receiver decode the message. In the scene, the intention of Mr Fredricksen was not clearing to Russel and he ended up decoding a wrong message.

Usefulness of the theory

The theory is important as it brings out the actual attributes of the characters within the movie. It also provides a clear picture on how communication moves from the sender to receiver and the receiver sends back the message. It clearly offers the communication events in the movie thereby offering a clear picture on all the happenings within the movie. As a result, the theory can be used outside the movie because based on the way the theory has been applied, it would be much easier to implement the communication process based on the example of the theories attributed. When implementing the theory, there is need for observing how the theory displays the communication process.

Works Cited

UP. Dir. Pete Docter. Perf. Jordan Nagai, Pete Docter, Christopher Plummer Ed Asner. 2009.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 4 Words: 1200

Managing Beer Brand

All or Nothing Brewhouse

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Date of Submission

Question 1. How can the brewers company increase the markets share on the products?

Analysis; the consumption of beer products is majorly domestic. There is low competition in the market, with few companies involved in the brewing of beer. Therefore, the company is only accessed to the local market, which comes with various challenges. The company can increase its market share by introducing new products brands. It can also consider establishing new subsidiaries in the international markets.

Question 2. What are the advantages of disadvantages of increasing the market share through product branding?

Increasing the markets share is advantageous to the brewhouse as it increases market sales. Once the company as a huge market share, it can benefit from the economy of scale where the production cost could be reduced. The increase in the market share also increases the profit margin of the company hence contributing to the sustainability of the company.

However, the introduction of new product brands as a measure to increase the company market might be disadvantageous if poorly implemented. For example, the company might lose its competitive advantage in the market with a decrease in the value of their products. Most importantly, the company might fail even at the domestic level as other emerging companies might take advantage of product branding to smuggle the products.

Question 3. What are the recommendations for increasing the market share in the BREWHOUSE case?

The company should consider engaging the customers both in the domestic and international markets. Besides, the company should come up with unique product brands. Most importantly, the company should focus on value addition in the production of the beers to ensure customer satisfaction.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Markerting Lemonade

Marketing Lemonade

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Marketing Lemonade

Marketing Methods


Advertising/Advertisement is a marketing methods which would directly reach our message and concern (product marketing) to the target segment. This will do so through expressing the brand values of our company.

Public Relation

Public relation is one of the most costly and credible ways to align in the best manner with target group and product (Thackeray, et.al, 2008). Public relation will best align with our target segment because it would let us develop personal relationships with each of target customers in the entire segment.

New Digital marketing techniques

New Digital marketing techniques such as social media marketing and networking tools and techniques of content marketing would engage our company through developing 24 engagement with the target segment by our online presence (Saxena, A. (2019).

Event marketing

Event marketing would best align our company with target segment by creating brand focused impressions in mega events and would develop relationships with the audiences of events.

Forms of Sales Promotion


Coupon will be used for sales promotion because 1) it assists to increase number of new customers, 2) increase sales of particular product(s), 3) reward customers, and 4) entice return to previous customers (Saxena, A. (2019).


Premium will be used for sales promotion because additional things to products leads to more sales. In this premium would attract new customers because they would be able to get more additional items with our products than competitive products in the market (Thackeray, et.al, 2008).

Social Consciousness

Our company is a highly socially-conscience due to several reasons but the most credible aspects is we take part in the campaigns which are developed to combat climate change. As well as we are highly valued in the industry because of our efficient Corporate Social Responsibility practices and work to improve the community we operate in.

Global Expansion

Below are the steps the company can expand through to global market

Market definition to expand to

Market analysis

Assessment of internal capabilities

Prioritizing and selection of markets

Development of market entry options (Fernández, Hermosillo, & Montes, 2018).

Promotional Methods

The promotional methods would be the use of social media and point of sale strategy. We should be active on social media to promote lemonade. We would also be able to create online conversations to enhance engagements (Thackeray, et.al, 2008). Point of sales will be sued to sales and promote lemonade in stores on local and global level.

Ethical and Moral Issues

The ethical issues we have will be evident as we are here to help children. The issue we would have is how we help the children where we would be needed to show that what help we can create and how much it will help in the disease called cancer.


Fernández-Reyes, F. C., Hermosillo-Valadez, J., & Montes-y-Gómez, M. (2018). A Prospect-Guided global query expansion strategy using word embeddings. Information Processing & Management, 54(1), 1-13.

Saxena, A. (2019). Entrepreneur - Start, run and grow your business. Entrepreneur. Retrieved 22 October 2019, from https://www.entrepreneur.com/

Thackeray, R., Neiger, B. L., Hanson, C. L., & McKenzie, J. F. (2008). Enhancing promotional strategies within social marketing programs: use of Web 2.0 social media. Health promotion practice, 9(4), 338-343.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Market & Segmentation Report

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Market Segmentation Report

Name of the writer

Name of the institution


TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc30742766 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc30742766 h 3

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742767 Market PAGEREF _Toc30742767 h 3

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742768 Market Size PAGEREF _Toc30742768 h 4

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742769 Key Trends PAGEREF _Toc30742769 h 5

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742770 Product Life Cycle PAGEREF _Toc30742770 h 5

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742771 Competitors PAGEREF _Toc30742771 h 6

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742772 Size of Competitors PAGEREF _Toc30742772 h 6

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742773 Positioning PAGEREF _Toc30742773 h 7

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742774 Segmentation PAGEREF _Toc30742774 h 7

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742775 Demographic Segment PAGEREF _Toc30742775 h 9

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742776 Consumer Decision Making Process PAGEREF _Toc30742776 h 9

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742777 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc30742777 h 10

HYPERLINK l _Toc30742777 References PAGEREF _Toc30742777 h 12

Market Segmentation Report


This report is a market and segmentation report that is aimed to cover the effect of consumer behavior on the marketing strategy. The report does so by analyzing the market of Sydney, Australia. In this, the report covers an in-depth analysis of the consumption patterns of the consumers of the market in the service product category where the Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) has been selected as the product. This report mainly reports the market details, competitors analysis, product details, and stage, and put a detailed analysis of the consumers of that particular market and region.


As the Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) is planned to be brought to the Australian market and people, it is very important to analyze and study every aspect of the people of Australia as consumers and the country as a market. It means that we should study and analyze regions in Australia where the service will be brought while that destination or place in Australia in Sydney. In short, the Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) would be brought to Sydney, Australia for which the people and market place of Sydney would be analyzed properly.

To do so, we must analyze and know the size of the market of the destination, key trends in the market, and the position of our bus service in the product life cycle. Hence each of the components is elaborated below.

Market Size

The market size of Sydney and even the entire Australia is very wide as well as progressive. The number of potential customers in this market is very high. It is not important to note and consider the number of people and customers in the market but it is important to consider the purchasing power of the consumers as well as identify how much potential customers are there, beyond all. It means that potential customers and consumers should be considered the most instead of all. So in this case, the Australian market and market of Sydney are very potential when it comes to the affordability and potentiality of people (Joussy, 2020).

The sales growth has been found to grow by 3.7 percent in the last month of 2018 as compared to the last year of 2017. Australia and Sydney as well are two of the most urban states and countries of the world. Almost 90 percent of the entire population of Australia which is about 24 million lives in the urban where a large number lives in the capital called Sydney. By states, the per capita income of the people is comparatively high while the per capita income of each Australian amount for 50,000 USs which is recorded as the second-highest average wealth per adult (WebAlive, 2019).

The service sector of Sydney and entire Australia shows a positive growth where strong growth is captured by transportation. The transportation sector is found highly growing because of tourism in Sydney (IBISWorld, 2020). While people also spend a lot on tourism and that is why they pay enough to have comfortable traveling to the regions they go for tourism and enjoyment. Hence and in short, the market size is enough large as well as productive and potential.

Key Trends

The future of service and traveling market and sector, as well as the entire market, depend upon different forces such as changing preferences of people, changing the behavior of consumers spending, investments of foreign companies and brands e.g. Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore), etc.

The increasing influx of international companies and brands also lead to customers preferences and sector growth. As well as there is a strong shift in the market because of new technology and technological products (IBISWorld, 2020).

The market players can be found non-responsive to some extent. This can be an opportunity for us to capture when bringing the bus services to Sydney and the entire Australia.

The growth rate of the service sector is registered for 5 percent, 3 percent, and 2.6 percent respectively.

The people and customers in the region are quality conscious and look for better quality products and services instead of low prices.

The economic growth is mainly covered by private investments by local and global companies and brands (Adapa, and Roy, 2017). So bringing our bus service would be a productive investment initiative.

Product Life Cycle

As the Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) is a new technological bus that is designed to provide comfort and high-level convenience to travelers, it is almost very clear that it has a bright future. It means that the Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) is on the growth stage in the PLC. Additionally, the Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) and bringing it to Sydney would be a good step as it is on the growth stage and would lead to getting succeed. Further, this initiative of bringing an Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) would require effective and strong strategies and tactics when it comes to satisfy peoples needs and markets and promote the service in a particular market.


As the region of Sydney is much known for tourism, there is a large number of transportation companies that provide transportation services to the people and tourists. It means that the competition for the Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) is enough tough when it comes to the number of competitors in the market and region. The competitors that the abs would have to compete in that market include direct competitors mostly.

The competitors which whom abs would be competing with are but not only the listed below.

BusaboutBuswaysForest Coach LinesHillsbusInterline Bus ServicesPunchbowl Bus CompanyTransdev NSWTransit Systems SydneyAustralia Wide CoachesCampbelltown Transit CompanyGlenorie Bus CompanyCrowthers (BusLink)

Size of Competitors

The existence of the competitors is very strong and stable. This means that the bus and transport companies which whom abs will compete are well-stable while their business size and operations are enough wide and large. The size of the above-listed competitors is bigger because they provide services to other regions and states of Australia as well. Hence, it clarifies that the companies have wider services and a strong presence almost in the whole country.


Product Positioning of Major Competitors

The positioning of the competitors listed and mentioned above are varying from each other. As well as the strategies and tactics they use to position and promote their products and services also differ up to an extent. But comparatively, the competitors such as Busabout, Forest Coach Lines, Australia Wide Coaches, Punchbowl Bus Company, and Transdev NSW use very effective and strong strategies and process to ensure the best possible positioning of their bus and transport services to the target customers (population) by properly communicating their key strengths and unique services. In other words, the competitors use strategies to communicate their brands and service they offer so effective positioning could be done (IBISWorld, 2020). For the purpose to do, most of the competitors develop marketing strategies and policies to identify peoples preferences, wants, likes and dislikes, by different marketing communication channels.

For the competitive positioning, some of the competitors of the abs such as Forest Coach Lines, Punchbowl Bus, Busabout, and Transdev NSW work in offering competitive pricing, comfortable traveling experiences, additional services like food and drinks, safety insurance, and varieties of choices and selection of mean of service/transportation.


There are three-four major segments in which the market and region of Sydney can be grouped as per the characteristics of customers and people. But the important three are as follows.

Demographic Segmentation divides the market of Sydney into different segments. The market is divided into different segments based on age, gender, income, family, education, and race. In the market of Sydney, the income level of the people or potential customers is comparatively high than other markets in the country, t number of youngsters and females is greater while educational standards are high. Half of the population up to 41 percent are Youngers while the half covers older people and children while the people of medium age are comparatively high. The percentage of medium age people is 39.71. The number of males per 100 females is 98.3 percent which means that women are more than men. Furthermore, the educational system is standard and the family system is not much strong while people believe in individualism more (Aurifeille, et.al, 2012).

Psychographic segmentation is the segmentation that divides customers of the Sydney marke on the basis of their psychological characteristics. The individuals in the region are mostly and even entirely educated and that is why they have stylish lifestyles. The individual personality plays a huge role in the identification and value of one in the society. In terms of professional life ad preferences, most people have a business mindset and many individuals and families are engaged in their businesses where tourism is the common business for the people.

The people also prefer to stay for a short period when travel other locations and that is why they prefer to book hotel rooms when traveling and this is one of the buying behavior of most people and consumers of Sydneys market (Martindale, and McKinney, 2017).

Behavioral Segmentation is the segment of the market of Sydney that categorizes the consumers of the market based on their use, attitude, and response to the products and services. In this era, the consumers and customers of this market show loyalty and positive responses to the products and services that provide high-quality results. Furthermore, the consumers of the market are high quality and standard oriented while they do not look for cheaper prices instead (Nayeem, and Casidy, 2015). It means that they can be satisfied by ensuring the provision of top-level traveling and bus services by Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore).

Demographic Segment

As mentioned above, the income level of the people or customers of Sydneys market is comparatively high than in other markets in the country. In terms of population, there are 98,538 people in Sydney. Half of the population (up to 41 percent) are Youngers while the half covers older people and children. Further, the medium age of people for 33 years. The percentage of medium age people is 39.71. The number of males per 100 females is 98.3 percent which means that women are more than men. Of the population, 52.7 are male and 47.3 are female while 0.6 of the population is made up by Aboriginals. Furthermore, the educational system is standard and the family system is not much strong while people believe in individualism more.

Consumer Decision Making Process

The consumer decision-making process of consumers of the market of Sydney and even entire Australia is found comparatively complex. The CDM process is complex because the consumers are quality-oriented. It means that they are much sensitive when making a purchase.

Need Recognition The consumers of this particular market purchase a product or acquire a service to use when they identify the difference between their actual state and desired state. They do not prefer to purchase the thing they see good or just liked it because of product packaging etc. while they purchase as per their needs (Tidwell, and Marks, 2014).

Information Search Similar to need recognition, the information search step is taken very consciously by the consumers or people of Sydney. They do so to get the best possible quality products and services that ensure better satisfaction. Here, they look at both internal and external searches and use different search sources for it.

Evaluation of Alternatives It is important to evaluate the alternates when looking for getting better and even the best thing or result. The same can be seen from the consumers of Sydneys market. It means that they use all of the details and information available to them for the purpose to evaluate the alternative products and services before they proceed to buy (Quester, Karunaratna, and Chong, 2011). In this, the consumers also look at the brand and company that offers a particular product or service to avail of the finest possible quality product or service.

Choice As the consumers of this particular market search information and evaluate alternates keenly and properly, the choice and selection rules and decisions are comparatively simple. It is so because they have already taken 50 of the decision as they get information and evaluate alternatives properly. It means that they do not take much time on this final step that where they should buy while it is easier for them to decide (Culbert, et.al, 2018). For example, when they check and find bus or traveling service the best and convenient, then they sometimes directly select and proceed to use their services.


After an in-depth analysis, it has come to conclude that the initiative of bringing Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore) to Sydney would be a productive and successful step. It is so because Autonomous bus shuttles services are of high quality and consumers/people of that market are quality conscious. Beyond this, it has also found that the market is enough wide to capture while the customers are financial potential. But, it should not be ignored that the competition may be found tough as well. Further, the consumers of the market are also highly loyal so they may become long term customers if satisfied with quality services by Autonomous bus shuttle (Singapore).


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Tidwell, P. and Marks, W. 2014. Australian Versus American Consumer Decision Making Strategies a Comparative AnalysisEFjZj7jhh 0J6CJOJQJUaJmHnHuhh 6CJOJQJaJ(jhh 6CJOJQJUaJ(h3h 5BCJOJQJaJphDr(h3hx5BCJOJQJaJphDrhHKCJOJQJaJhHKhHKCJOJQJaJhjh CJOJQJaJhjhxCJOJQJaJh1h1CJOJQJaJhjhxCJOJQJaJ (Fuvwxyz agdj( dagdEdagd mpdagdHKmp dgd mpdEd1dhW6CJOJQJaJmHnHujhh 6CJOJQJUaJmHnHu6jhh 6CJOJQJUaJmHnHu-hh 6CJOJQJaJmHnHu7jhh 0J6CJOJQJUaJmHnHujhh 0J6CJOJQJUaJmHnHuhh 6CJOJQJaJmHnHu.hh 0J6CJOJQJaJmHnHu 5 6 7 hLh-Ljqhh 6CJOJQJUaJmHnHu6jhh 6CJOJQJUaJmHnHu-hh 6CJOJQJaJmHnHujhh 0J6CJOJQJUaJmHnHuhh 6CJOJQJaJmHnHu.hh 0J6CJOJQJaJmHnHu7jhh 0J6CJOJQJUaJmHnHu.hh 6CJOJPJQJaJmHnHu

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WebAlive. 2019. The State of Australias Ecommerce in 2019. Webalive.com.au. Available at https//www.webalive.com.au/ecommerce-statistics-australia/ (Accessed 24 January 2020).

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Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 7 Words: 2100



[Author’s name]

[Institute’s name]


Introduction to Telstra

The business organisation of Telstra established its position as one of the leading telecommunications and technology company operating in Australia. The management of Telstra enhanced its market position by offering a full range of communication services to potential customers. The following company has the potential to introduce new products and services in the market to increase its market position. It is noteworthy to mention that the organisation of Telstra is competing in all areas of telecommunication industry in case of both the domestic and international market. The company of Telstra originally started its operations in 1901 by the Postmaster Generals Department to ensure the proper management of all kinds of domestic phone services. The time period of 1982 was also critical when Telstra, originally Telecom Australia established its position as official Telecommunications Corporations in case of all forms of domestic and international telephone services. The telecommunication industry of the country progressed with the passage of time due to different forms of technological advancement (O’Leary, 2018). The market of telecom eventually turned as one of the most competitive industries operating in the country. Currently, there are many powerful stakeholders that involve in case of delivering telecom services to the customers.

Identification of Main Competitors of Telstra

It is vital for the management to assess the current positioning of the competitors operating in the market to formulate business strategies accordingly. Competitive analysis in the context of Telstra is important to determine the actual position of the company in the growing telecom industry of the country. This form of assessment is also crucial to propose a suitable proactive business plan to attain a competitive advantage in the market. Identification of the main competitors of Telstra is the first step to examine the effectiveness of the business strategies adopted by the company. Optus, Vodafone, TPG, 3U, and Virgin Mobile are recognised as the major competitors of Telstra operating in the telecommunication industry of the country. The entry of different companies in the telecom business ultimately leads to the highest level of competition in the market. Undoubtedly, the growing competition of the market is one major threat for Telstra that requires necessary attention.

The higher management of Telstra is focusing to adopt different innovative strategies to effectively cope with the growing concern of competition. The threat of competition for Telstra mostly prevails in case of telecom organisations of Optus, Vodafone, and TPG Telecom. The higher management of the company is keen to adopt new marketing measures to enhance its business horizon. The financial analysis of Telstra explicitly reveals that the yearly revenues of Telstra are negatively influenced by the prospect of increased competition in the market. The lower average revenue per user and decreasing profit margins are two prominent financial indicators that help to determine the adverse impact of growing competition in the business of Telstra (Daly, 2018). The arrival of new telecom companies such as TPG ultimately makes the situation more threatening for the market approach of Telstra. The organisation of Telstra established its market position as the largest services company but the involvement of many mobile operators negatively influences this position. It is critical to evaluate the growing concern of market competition to propose better business strategies and process according to the requirements of the industry.

Approach to Assess Competitors

Adoption of most suitable approach to assess competitors is important to step to adopt better strategic and marketing tools. It is necessary for the management of Telstra to timely identify the growing concern of market competition and take the required business measures. The practical approach of competitor analysis is one significant option to determine the potential competitors of Telstra. The main focus of this specific strategic approach is to explore the competitors of the company. Furthermore, the criteria of competitor analysis are also useful to assess the current strategies of the competitor organisations to determine their overall strengths and weaknesses. Competitor analysis is defined as one critical and necessary part of the overall marketing plan of the company.

The approach of competitor analysis can also be used in case of Telstra to explore the potential competitive companies operating in the telecom industry. Identification of all strengths and weaknesses of the competitive organisations is one effective approach for Telstra to reconsider its current business strategies and offer advance business prospect to the customers. Adoption of systematic steps is essential to achieve the required outcomes from the assessment approach of competitor analysis. The first step of identifying growing competition for Telstra is to explore the names of the companies as the potential threat. This form of assessment is vital to figure out the basic competition of the market exists for Telstra in Australian telecommunication market. The next step of the competitor analysis is to critically analyse and compare the significant strengths and weaknesses of all competitive organisations (Gerrand, 2004). This form of consideration also guides to rank the market position of each company that involves in the competition. Identification of the revenues of competitive organisations is also necessary to figure out the authority of all the related shareholders.

There are some specific aspects or features that need to be considered to adopt the successful approach of comparative analysis. When it comes to the development of competitor analysis in the context of Telstra then it is vital to identify the target customers in case of all main competitors. It is critical to determine the potential market range of Optus, Vodafone, TPG, 3U, and Virgin Mobile. Identification of the market share in case of all the competitors is also critical to determine their actual market position. Additionally, it is also primitive to examine the unique value-add that exists in case of product or service provided by the competitors. Proper assessment of the business approach of competitive orgqanisations is a significant step to ensure proper marketing decisions according to the risk of market competition.

List and Rank Five Competitors of Telstra

It is highly important for Telstra to find out its biggest competitors in the Australian market. For this particular purpose, a weighting system is utilized to determine the strength and weakness of five major competitors of Telstra. These five major competitors of Telstra are mentioned below along with their weighting regarding specific success factors.

Key IndustrySuccess Factors





Virgin Mobile


1 - Extensive distribution







2 - Customer focus







3 - Economies of scale







4 - Product innovation














Creation of Competitor Analysis Grid

It is highly important to prepare a competitive analysis grid as it provides valuable information regarding different competitors in a particular field. A company should need to prepare a competitive analysis grid to determine valuable features of its competitors. Competitive analysis grid helps a company to produce certain valuable strategies to compete with its competitors. It is beneficial for an organization as it helps to overcome specific barriers that are preventing its progress in a particular industry. In the considered case of Telstra, competitive analysis grid is made to differentiate the strengths and weakness of Optus, Vodafone, TPG, Virgin Mobile, and 3U.

Key IndustrySuccess Factors




Virgin Mobile


Extension Distribution






Customer Focus






Economics of scale






Product distribution






For this particular purpose, four basic factors are utilised to determine the ranking of five major competitors of Telstra. Four basic industrial success factors that are used in this competitor analysis grid are extension distribution, customer focus, product distribution, and economics of scale. A critical examination of Optus, Vodafone, TPG, Virgin Mobile, and 3U helps to provide better understanding of the position of these companies. Among these five companies, Optus has a significant advantage in three major fields. Optus is working effectively to dominate three main industrial success factors including extension distribution, customer focus, and product distribution. Enhancement in these specific fields has provides Optus with a competitive advantage on other four companies. However, the overall dominance of Telstra is still higher as compared to Optus. After Optus, Vodafone has managed to occur significant portion of that particular market by focusing on customer satisfaction, economics of scale, and product distribution. Analysis of the competitor grid helps to determine the specific position of various industries in the Australian market (Krämer, Jung, & Burgartz, 2016). It is analysed that Telstra is one of the largest providers of fixed-line services in Australia due to its focus on extension distribution, customer satisfaction, and product distribution. In terms of coverage and subscription, Telstra is having a significant advantage over its competitors.

The strategic advantage of Telstra has enabled it to become significant leader of network in Australia. It is important to consider the fact that nearly 98 percent of Australian population is being covered by 4G networks of Telstra. Such high statistical figure demonstrates the dominance of Telstra in Australian market. Telstra has a significant advantage in terms of advanced technology. Significant investments in latest technologies are proven to be effective for Telstra. It is important to determine the strengths and weakness of Telstra’s competitors. Optus is making significant progress in product innovation as it is consistently developing new products. Integration with different technology companies has allowed Optus to establish a reliable supply chain. Significant supply chain proves to be effective for Optus as it helps streamline its operations (Madden & Ahmad, 2015). Customer satisfaction is highly beneficial for an industry to make significant progress in the market. Analysis of competitor grid has provided liable information regarding customer focus of these companies. Optus and Vodafone have specific advantage in terms of customer satisfaction as they are managing their products and services based on the demand conditions in the country.

Assessment of Current and Future Objectives, Strategies of Competitors

The comprehensive assessment of the telecom market of Australia helps to recognise Optus and Vodafone are the major existing competitors for Telstra. It is important to identify the current and future objectives, strategies of these competitor organisations to make marketing situation clear for Telstra.


Optus is becoming Australia’s strongest telecommunications brand by striding the boundaries of traditional telecommunications. It has an aim to become Australia’s most valued, acclaimed and innovative service brand. Its main focus has been on innovations in the past and has a goal of continuing it in the future. With the use of innovations and latest technology the company is targeted to meet their customers’ expectations. For example, it is currently delivering the 5G and for this has acquired additional 3.6GHz spectrum holdings in regional areas. Furthermore, its future strategy is to embrace digital technologies in all of its products and services (King, 2013). Optus had also been working to remain competitive in the business market.

In addition, it is famous for not only offering its products and services to the customers but also having partnerships with different organisations to strengthen its relationship with the Australian public. For instance, it is continuing its ten years partnership with the Australian Open and serving since 2001. Under this partnership, it not only provides them the cutting edge technology to Australian Open staff and media but also offer them free WiFi and network reception lift for the fans and visitors of the tennis shoe. This strategy is aimed to increase the target market and compete effectively. Likewise, Optus is also maintaining the quality and has a plan to continue it in the future also. This strategy will help the company to retain its customers in the long run.

Vodafone Hutchison Australia (VHA)

The telecom organisation of VHA established its position as one of the leading telecommunications companies in Australia. The current position of the company in the form of merger between Vodafone Australia and Hutchison 3G Australia is one strong market approach adopted by the organisation. The perspective of the joint venture makes it easy for the management to enhance its approach of product offering in both domains of prepaid and post-paid mobile phones and wireless broadband. Currently, this company has more than 5.3 million customers in the country. The management of the company is interested to expand its market position in future by offering endless data plans in case of SMBs. It is first telecom company in the market that introduced the approach of endless data. It is one smart business move by the company that eventually enhance the feature of competition in the telecom industry of the country.


Consultation, F. A. C., & O’Leary, D. M. (2018). What is the problem? Facilities.

Daly, A. E. (2018). Implications of developments in telecommunications for Indigenous people in remote and rural Australia. Canberra, ACT: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR), The Australian National University.

Gerrand, P. (2004). Revisiting the Structural Separation of Telstra. TELECOMMUNICATION JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA, 54, 15-28.

King, S. (2003). Competition Policy and Regulation. The Cambridge Handbook of Social Sciences in Australia, 31.

Krämer, A., Jung, M., & Burgartz, T. (2016). A small step from price competition to price war: understanding causes, effects, and possible countermeasures. International Business Research, 9(3), 1-13.

Madden, G., & Ahmad, H. (2015). 14. The Australian digital market: opportunities and challenges. The Smart Revolution Towards the Sustainable Digital Society: Beyond the Era of Convergence, 285.

Subject: Marketing and PR

Pages: 8 Words: 2400

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