The current paper determines the changes in the workforce and its impacts on the way organizations are managed. The shifts in the economic landscapes remain the central reason for changes in the American workforce. Economic growth created more employment opportunities for people. Employment opportunities demand high analytical and social skills. The changes in workforces are assessed in terms of age, sex, and race. The common factors that responsible for these changes include high participation of females and minority groups in the labor force and technology integrations. Cultural diversity has been the central reason for organizations to adopt fair policies for equal treatment of employees.
Factors that changed workforce
The growth of females in the American labor force has significant impacts on the changing workforce. More females entered in different occupations that resulted in an overall increase in workforce. Millennials were born between 1982 and 2000 who represent 83% of the American population. Millennials are more diverse compared to other generations that make 44.2 percent of the ethnic or minority groups. Statistics also indicate that young groups are ethnically and racially more diverse compared to the other groups as the percentage of minorities increased from 32.9 to 37.9 percent. Minority makes 65% of the California population, 56.5% of the Texas population, 64.2% of Columbia population. The participation of more minority population in the labor force caused changes in the workforce.
Cultural diversity is another factor that caused shifts in the American labor force CITATION BLS18 \l 1033 (BLS).
Majority of the workforce is made by Millennials today who mature into leadership positions. The statistics of the Pew Research Center reveals that the participation rate of Millennials is 35 percent in the American labor force. In 2017, 56 million Millennials having ages of 21 to 36 years were either employed or in search for jobs. In the same year, 53 million generation X made one-third of the labor force. The statistics also indicate that the participation of generation X in the labor force declined from 54 million in 2008 CITATION Ric181 \l 1033 (Fry). The statistics provided by the census bureau depicts that whites make 78% of the labor force that is the largest in America. Blacks make 12 percent of the workforce and Asians make 6 percent only. This exhibits that minority populations are contributing to the changes in the workforce. Among Asian labor force 22% are Asian Indians, 21 percent are Chinese, and 17 percent are Filipinos CITATION BLS18 \l 1033 (BLS). The statistics indicate that the largest minority group participating in the labor force is of Hawaiians (68%). The participation of Hispanics is 65.8%, American Indians and natives are 61.1%, and blacks is 61.6% CITATION BLS18 \l 1033 (BLS).
There has been a significant increase in participation of females in the American workforce. The participation of women in the labor market increased from 34% in 1957 to 57% in 2016. The forecast suggests that the participation of females will increase further in the future. Facts reveal that "in California, women's labor force participation in 2010 was 62% in San Francisco but just 57% in San Diego; in Pennsylvania, it was 62% in Philadelphia but only 57% in Pittsburgh” CITATION Ama181 \l 1033 (Weinstein).
Impact on organizations
The findings reflect that each year more Millennials are replacing generation X in the labor force. The retirement of the Boomers created more space for the Millennials. Women are now becoming part of different professions, and most of the barriers for them are eliminated. Due to change in the nature of the workforce, the organizations employ different strategies for managing employees. Organizations have adopted different practices for managing changes in the workforce. Organizational operations involve a set of activities that create a high-level of efficiency. The central objective of the firm is to manage employees in a manner that leads to optimization of productivity and maximization of profit. The operational efficiency relies on the manager's ability to use employees in the best possible way leading to attainment of business objectives. They manage business activities in an efficient manner leading to the achievement of desired outcomes. The operations rely on the availability of the capacity, resources, and output in the process of business. Resources are important for labor, financial and material components. Capacity is important for the productivity of a required output CITATION Kha16 \l 1033 (Khandelwal).
The key professional functions involve the recruitment and training of the staff. Human resource has a key role in building skills and competency. Hiring the right people is important because it adds to the efficiency and organizational success. Providing training to the hired employees is also the responsibility of the human resource. Managing employees relation is the responsibility of the organization and the manager because it is linked to the stability of the firm CITATION Ton05 \l 1033 (Stoltzfus). Maintaining workflow in production and building relationships with the clients are also functions of the organization. The organization has a role of establishing effective communications with the employees. Smooth communication flow depends on the command chain process. Improved communications have a significant impact on productivity and timely performance as it eliminates the gap between supervisor and the workers.
Youth acquiring strong communication skills is more likely to find employment opportunities. The organisations evaluate applicants communications ability during the interviews. It is thus appropriate to develop strong speaking and listening skills. The current organisations are following the model of effective communications where employees can build direct relationships with the supervisors and managers. Knowledge of software and devices is also essential criteria for future employment. Good communications are crucial for making cases and reporting about the activities regularly.
Another attribute that will increase future job opportunities includes time management. The organizations are aiming at high efficiency so youth must adopt time managing approach.
Critical thinking is a practical approach employed to promote problem-solving attitudes in the workplace. It allows employees to find solutions by considering various options. The model has a direct impact on productivity and efficiency. The model is useful for removing emotional problems and observing facts objectively thus leading to logical decisions. Through this attitude, the employees manage to gather information about the situation and analyze it, that leas to an optimized solution. Solutions to the problems contribute to the success of the organization CITATION Kha16 \l 1033 (Khandelwal). Organizational culture has an active role in managing the employees. The organization that adopts a creative environment manages to provide more scope for expansion. The power of the CEO's can generate positive or negative outcomes. The strategy of the leadership to promote openness leads organization towards its goals. The organizations that manage power and politics through the application of skills and precision attains competitive advantage CITATION JLS12 \l 1033 (Stancil). A manager has a crucial role in the organization as he helps people to develop a deep perspective. Only through an assessment of one's ability an employee can use his expertise. The most significant factor that helps in seeing things from a wider perspective includes the adoption of systematic thinking. Acceptance of change is one of the essential elements of the congregational system. The success of the organizational structure does not come from one sole adjustment. The more effective approach is to view all the aspects related to the organization and implement changes where necessary. The success of an organization does not depend only on widening the perspective, but it also requires ideas and creativity. Managing change for implementation of the technology and new processes have a strong influence on organizational efficiencies CITATION JLS12 \l 1033 (Stancil).
Employees' improvement plans are adopted by companies that have profound impacts on enhancing their performance that leads to an overall increase in productivity and efficiency. These plans will be useful for assisting the employees in building the required skills set. By maintaining capacity, communication flows, and openness, the organization will be able to eliminate the information gap CITATION Ton05 \l 1033 (Stoltzfus).
Expectations of employment
The expectations of men and women are different for employment. Females demand equal work opportunities and pay. This is due to the fact that men earn better wages than females. They demand fair treatment and equal chances of promotion. The conflict management model is an effective strategy that resolves the interpersonal conflicts between employees and leads to overall efficiency. Identification of the causes and conflict escalation process resolves the issues. The males demand high salaries, employment benefits, chances of promotion and a certain degree of independence CITATION Cra08 \l 1033 (Pinder).
The collective expectations include factors such as organizational rank and employees' position in the respective organization. The demographic factors affecting the employee's expectations involves the ages, gender, educational level, and marital status. Various factors on employees' motivation and the commonly identified variables include intrinsic variables and extrinsic variable. The common expectationsinvolve; the feeling of participation, problem-solving under the assistance of a supervisor, nature of work, the scope of promotion and appreciation/ rewards for the performance are the intrinsic factors that cause a significant influence on employees' motivation and their performance. Extrinsic variables uncovered under the study include job security, good salaries, positive working conditions, and tactful discipline. Employees performance and commitment is controlled by the factors of motivation and three commonly identified factors influencing employees motivation and commitment are; identification involved in describing the association between employees experience at workplace and self worth, involvement determining the level of contribution from employees and loyalty that yields employees willing to work for the organization and not leaving it when paid high salary from other organization CITATION Cra08 \l 1033 (Pinder). Employees' motivation is also dependent on the feelings, and positive feelings yield a positive impact on employees' motivation while negative feelings exert a negative impact on employees' motivation. Feelings of employees are associated with their motivation, and the positive attitudes of employees are dependent on positive relationships between employees and supervisors.
The conclusions drawn from the findings depict that the American job market provides better work opportunities to the male and female employees. The demand for IT and analytical skills will increase in the near future. The youth planning to enter the workforce must develop adequate IT skills. It is more appropriate to familiarize with the digital technologies and artificial intelligence. The reliance of the organisations on artificial intelligence will increase. The organizations are always looking for qualified workers so youth planning to join the job market must be able to build those competencies. Soft skills have become essential criteria for the selection of employees. Youth must be able to possess a strong work ethic that is linked to his commitment and dedication. A positive attitude is also essential for adapting to the diverse culture. Almost all organizations have employed people of different cultures for promoting diversity, so youth that exhibits flexible behaviors is most likely to find a job.
With the growth in
Challenges of employer
The employer faces certain challenges due to changing workforce. The common issues affecting the performance of employees include low morale, lack of motivation and enthusiasm affecting the productivity. The absence of coordination influences the quality of work. Low motivation results in an ineffective manager-employee relationship that causes negative implications on organizational success. Studies suggest the need for solutions that address the issues prevailing in the workplace by overcoming communication gap. Improvements in workplace efficiency and enhancements of communication between staff members produce better results. The team leader plays a significant role in the management of conflicts between among employees. Adoption of certain managerial qualities leads to improved staff relationships. Team building strategies play a significant role in improving the morale of staff that leads to improved performance. The incorporation of effective team strategy ensures that all members take an active part in the workplace. The role of the team leader is to identify each opportunity that results in better involvement of staff. The team building undergoes different stages of development. The use of effective team building strategy and plan allow staff to work together and collaborate. Effective communication technologies such as face- to- face time also results in positive the important steps that result in team building involve constant attention to staff, enhancement of understanding between staff members and handling conflicting situations that result from differences among workers. The strategy focuses on ensuring that the members are working for a common purpose. Encouraging staff regularly also influences the morale of the staff. The mental, physical and emotional issues also influence the morale of nurses that affects the quality of their work. The limitations to address the team issues involve; lack of funds and resources, difficulties to manage positive attitudes due to cultural and religious backgrounds.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Weinstein, Amanda. When More Women Join the Workforce, Wages Rise — Including for Men. 2018. 13 02 2019 <https://hbr.org/2018/01/when-more-women-join-the-workforce-wages-rise-including-for-men>.
BLS. BLS Report. 2018. 13 02 2019 <https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2016/home.htm>.
Fry, Richard. Millennials are the largest generation in the U.S. labor force. 2018. 13 02 2019 <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/04/11/millennials-largest-generation-us-labor-force/>.
Khandelwal, Neha. Art Thinking. Creative Thinking.Design Thinking. Critical Thinking. 2016. 2017 йил 05-Oct <https://medium.com/@hwabtnoname/art-thinking-creative-thinking-design-thinking-critical-thinking-6d75b317f0e0>.
Pinder, Craig C. Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior. (current ed.). Prentice Hall., 2008.
Stancil, J L. "Has the S corporation Outlived Its Usefulness?" CPA Journal, 82(2), (2012): 40-45.
Stoltzfus, Tony. Leadership Coaching: The Disciplines, Skills, and Heart of a Christian Coach. 2005.
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