Gender relations, inequality, stereotyping, masculinity, and femininity are some of the most important concepts, which shed light on the patterns of the working of the society. Gender equality is one of the most important demands of the different sections of the society, which is often neglected and compromised by the other sections of society. The researchers are of the view that gender inequality and stereotyping is a prominent feature of the routine life, which is consciously or unconsciously taught to children since the early age and natural becomes part of their practice when they become an active member of the society. Powlishta, Sen, Serbin, Poulin-Dubois, & Eichstedt, (2001) jointly authored a research article which was entitled “From infancy through middle childhood: the role of cognitive and social factors in becoming gendered.” The authors of the article have focused on the notion that the cognitive and social factors play an important role in teaching gender stereotyping to children, ranging from infants to middle childhood.
The authors are trying to communicate that the gendered based practices and values of the society are so intact n its routine fabric that infants learn them from a quite young age and it becomes a part of their thinking and practice. The cognitive development and social factors teach the children the difference between male and female, as well as the toys, colors, sports and other occupations which are typically reserved for the people of either gender. The authors are supporting their contentions by mentioning that boys are more attracted to playing the physical sports, like playing with football or toys like guns, etc., whereas girls play with dolls or other toys of household items, which is the clear distinction of the gender roles of the society (Powlishta et al., 2001).
According to the theory of the authors, the gender affects vocational development through the cognitive development of the children where they see men and women in distinctive separate roles, learn them and then practice them as well. I think the ideas of the authors are quite clear and well established as well and they affect my identity in the way that I have also learned the difference of genders from these stereotypical practices of the society, which ensure the pattern of gender inequality. My response to their ideas impacts and influence the critique in the way that I have to acknowledge the gender inequality in the society, which is taught to the children from an early age of infancy, in order to keep the distinction and difference in the society.
Judith Lorber (1993) authored an article which is entitled "Believing is seeing: Biology as ideology." The authors have argued in the research study that although biology of the human beings is believed to be the basic cause of their distinctions, which ultimately affects their behavior and attitude towards each other, the real cause of the distinction is the social construction of gender differences. The author has mentioned that the western ideology has presented the biological difference of the two genders as the base of their gendered role and status in the society and have tried to justify it by explaining that biological difference of the human beings motivates them to think and behave in a different manner.
The author is supporting his contentions by mentioning that the social constructs of the society have played an important role in highlighting the differences of men and women and then assigning them different and distinctive role accordingly, to maintain a power structure in the society. According to the theory of Lorber, gender affects vocational development in the way that the men and women are assigned the professions and roles in the society not according to their capabilities and competence, but according to their gender. Women are expected to stay limited to their homes, while men can become a part of the labor force (Lorber, 1993).
The idea of the author is right in the term that the biological difference of the two genders is made the base of creating a social distinction in society. The idea of the author affects my identity in the way that it reveals that being a woman, I am weak than the male members of society. My response to author’s idea impact and influence my critique in the way that I do not believe that women are any less than men, as they have the capability of giving a tough competition to men in each and every field of life.
Faiza Ali (2015) authored an article which was entitled "Gender Equality at the Workplace," in which the author has shed light on gender inequality in the work setting. The author is saying that pay gap, the glass ceiling and gender stereotyping are the main components of gender inequality in the work setting and women are the target of this inequality. The author is supporting her contentions by mentioning that the segregation in the workplace ensures the superiority of men over the women, irrespective of their competence. According to the Marxist theory, explained by the author, gender affects vocational development in the way that women are not provided the chances of progress in the work setting, by utilizing the glass ceiling strategy (Ali, 2015).
The ideas presented by the author shed light on the workplace practices of society. The ideas of the author affect my identity in the way that it suggests that I would have to face gender inequality through different means after becoming a part of some workplace. My response to her idea is that although workplace inequality was a consistent part of the society, however, the efforts and services of the women are now being acknowledged and discrimination towards them has decreased to a great extent which is a positive change.
Ali, F. (2015). Gender equality in the workplace. Syed, J., Özbilgin, M., eds.
Lorber, J. (1993). Believing is seeing: Biology as ideology. Gender & Society, 7(4), 568-581.
Powlishta, K. K., Sen, M. G., Serbin, L. A., Poulin-Dubois, D., & Eichstedt, J. A. (2001). From infancy through middle childhood: The role of cognitive and social factors in becoming gendered.
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