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Cannabis is a general term which is used for various drugs like marijuana, hash and also hashish oil that are made from the plant Cannabis sativa. In Australia, this particular type of drug is the most commonly used illegal drug. There are many negative effects of Cannabis that are harmful to the health of youth and also for the overall being. It is basically smoked or it can be mixed with food and then eaten and in some other cases it is brewed as tea but it is noteworthy here that this drug is addictive if it is used in excessive amount. It can either be smoked directly from a pipe or it can be mixed with cigarette and smoked. In Australia, it is not allowed and hence illegal to grow, process, or sell any kind of drug including both cannabis, opiate, and Methamphetamine ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDWx0EtfRc,propertiesformattedCitation(Wolkoff, 1997),plainCitation(Wolkoff, 1997),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1642,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/MJU69W6Z,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/MJU69W6Z,itemDataid1642,typearticle-journal,titleMethamphetamine abuse an overview for health care professionals.,container-titleHawaii medical journal,volume56,issue2,authorfamilyWolkoff,givenDavid A.,issueddate-parts1997,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Wolkoff, 1997). Despite of these bans if any person uses or grow these plants then there are certain penalties and it gets serious when a person is found driving under the effect of cannabis ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDxGgQymAq,propertiesformattedCitation(Hall and Solowij, 1998),plainCitation(Hall and Solowij, 1998),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1641,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/QB7TYVYA,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/QB7TYVYA,itemDataid1641,typearticle-journal,titleAdverse effects of cannabis,container-titleThe lancet,page1611-1616,volume352,issue9140,authorfamilyHall,givenWayne,familySolowij,givenNadia,issueddate-parts1998,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Hall and Solowij, 1998).
As far as an opiate is concerned even the legal use of opiate is responsible for more deaths and also hospitalizations as compared to illegal opiates. In Australia every day 150 hospitalizations occur along with some 14 emergency department presentation involve cases that are harmed by opium and 3 people die every day due to drug-induced opium use. Methamphetamine is a powerful and highly addictive substance which majorly affects the central nervous system. It is also commonly known as meth, ice or crystal which is a white and odorless powder that can easily dissolve in water or alcohol. It is also considered as an abusive substance which can be smoked, injected and it can also be orally ingested, smoking methamphetamine is one of the common methods of ingesting this substance. All of the three drugs are highly addictive and abusive and in the last few years, the use of these addictive substance has increased vastly specifically among the youth. Therefore in order to reduce the use, the Australian government has put forward many legislations in order to discourage the use of these abusive substances ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationID9miR96SJ,propertiesformattedCitation(Darke et al., 2008),plainCitation(Darke et al., 2008),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1622,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/K75JW577,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/K75JW577,itemDataid1622,typearticle-journal,titleMajor physical and psychological harms of methamphetamine use,container-titleDrug and Alcohol Review,page253-262,volume27,issue3,sourceWiley Online Library,abstractIssues. The major physical and psychological health effects of methamphetamine use, and the factors associated with such harms. Approach. Comprehensive review. Key Findings. Physical harms reviewed included toxicity and mortality, cardiovascular/cerebrovascular pathology, dependence and blood-borne virus transmission. Psychological harms include methamphetamine psychosis, depression, suicide, anxiety and violent behaviours. Implications. While high-profile health consequences, such as psychosis, are given prominence in the public debate, the negative sequelae extend far beyond this. This is a drug class that causes serious heart disease, has serious dependence liability and high rates of suicidal behaviours. Conclusion. The current public image of methamphetamine does not portray adequately the extensive, and in many cases insidious, harms caused.,DOI10.1080/09595230801923702,ISSN1465-3362,languageen,authorfamilyDarke,givenShane,familyKaye,givenSharlene,familyMcKETIN,givenRebecca,familyDuflou,givenJohan,issueddate-parts2008,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Darke et al., 2008).
In order to reduce and limit the use or possession of any of these addictive substances, there are some strict rules in Australia. It is against the law to possess or use any of these addictive substances. In most of the Australian states and territories, it is also illegal to possess drug using equipment. If in any case any of the above-mentioned drugs are found in an individuals locker or home, then he/she will be charged with fine along with imprisonment unless they prove that the found drugs do not belong to them. Under the Australian legislation, there are two main types of drug offense one is called offense and the other one is called supply. Possession means having the possession or carrying an illegal drug or having in your home or property. If an individual also possesses a drug jointly with other people, then it also comes in possession. Supply or trafficking includes if a person is caught supplying a banned drug or substance to another person. A trafficker or drug provider is someone who exchanges drug with money or some particular services, but if an illegal or banned drug is passed to other people then this is also considered as trafficking ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDJDY9O5x4,propertiesformattedCitation(uc0u8220Drugs and the Law,uc0u8221 n.d.),plainCitation(Drugs and the Law, n.d.),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1624,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/X7BAMWXU,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/X7BAMWXU,itemDataid1624,typewebpage,titleDrugs and the Law,container-titlePositive Choices,abstractThis factsheet examines legal issues associated with drug possession and supply.,URLhttps//positivechoices.org.au/teachers/drugs-and-the-law,languageen,accesseddate-parts2019,4,18,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Drugs and the Law, n.d.).
Depending on the age of the culprit, the type of drug along with the quantity the penalties for these drug offenses vary among all the territories or States of Australia. In case of opiate and cannabis if a person is charged with minor drug offense then the States or territories will give permission to the police to divert the offender from going to the police, for instance, possession of a very small quantity of a banned drug. In that case, a formal warning will be recorded on the database of the police. If the offender is a juvenile, then at that time a youth justice conference is arranged in which the guardian or parent of the offender is invited and the offense is discussed with them along with a healthcare professional. This meeting or conference is used to evaluate that whether the user is fit for education or counselling sessions. If the offense is major which involves with larger quantity of cannabis and opiate or if in some cases the offense is a repeated one then in that case the offender is not qualified for a diversion or caution and they may face some serious punishments that involve a fine up to the amount of 100,000, a criminal penalty can also be given to the offender which includes imprisonment up to 25 years ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDbpDHAkKb,propertiesformattedCitation(Wilks and Callan, 1990),plainCitation(Wilks and Callan, 1990),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1633,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/JV8CKBU3,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/JV8CKBU3,itemDataid1633,typearticle-journal,titlePerceptions of legal and illegal drugs comparisons of parents, adolescents, and best friends,container-titleDrug and Alcohol Review,page311-319,volume9,issue4,sourcePubMed,abstractThe topic of drugs is a sensitive issue and an area where considerable conflict and disagreement may exist between parents and children. In this study, 50 family groups (consisting of father-mother-adolescent-adolescents friend) responded to questions about a range of legal and illegal drugs used in Australia. A multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that parents, adolescents, and adolescents best friends had similar perceptions about drugs, especially distinctions between legal and illegal substances, and drugs used more by younger people. LSD, cocaine and heroin were judged by all groups as causing personal and family problems, being strong and dangerous, not socially acceptable, bad for ones health and associated with crime. Marihuana, tobacco and alcohol were judged in opposite terms, as well as being perceived as popular, widespread and used by youth. Subjects perceptions of drugs were very similar to representative state and national community samples, but were inaccurate when compared to official figures for drug prevalence and morbidity. In particular, respondents showed little appreciation of the problems associated with widely available legal drugs such as alcohol and tobacco.,DOI10.1080/09595239000185431,ISSN0959-5236,notePMID 16840157,shortTitlePerceptions of legal and illegal drugs,journalAbbreviationDrug Alcohol Rev,languageeng,authorfamilyWilks,givenJ.,familyCallan,givenV. J.,issueddate-parts1990,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Wilks and Callan, 1990).
All these substances which have psychoactive properties including heroin, methamphetamine, opiate, and cannabis are not allowed in Australia. In most of the jurisdictions, the punishment for cannabis offenses is less than for other offenses which involve the possessions of other drugs. In various jurisdiction of Australia, the possession and use of cannabis have been legalized which means that if a person is caught with the possession of cannabis they can pay a fine of 100-300 they can get free rather than receiving a criminal conviction or any kind of prison sentence. This means that the penalties are less severe in this case as compared to other drugs, it does not mean that the drug has been completely legalized ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDdWX4M8DU,propertiesformattedCitation(Moles and Stehlik, 2015),plainCitation(Moles and Stehlik, 2015),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1626,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/7ER6GA9L,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/7ER6GA9L,itemDataid1626,typearticle-journal,titlePharmacy practice in Australia,container-titleThe Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy,page418,volume68,issue5,authorfamilyMoles,givenRebekah J.,familyStehlik,givenPaulina,issueddate-parts2015,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Moles and Stehlik, 2015).
In most of the States of Australia, it has been proved through various studies that the teenagers become addicted to various illicit drugs due to cannabis because it provides the gateway towards other illicit and more serious drugs like ice and opiates. Therefore, some States are working hard to completely ban cannabis so that it is no longer readily available for the public. For this purpose, along with fine and imprisonment, the Australian government is also introducing counseling and training to the people who are drug addictive along with their families. These training are helpful in finding out the risks involved in drug use and how to prevent and stay away from any kind of illicit and harmful drug ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationID8NfZruV1,propertiesformattedCitation(Nutt, 2015),plainCitation(Nutt, 2015),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1627,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/EG8JQCZM,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/EG8JQCZM,itemDataid1627,typearticle-journal,titleIllegal Drugs Laws Clearing a 50-Year-Old Obstacle to Research,container-titlePLoS Biology,volume13,issue1,sourcePubMed Central,abstractFor over 50 years, many medical drugs have been effectively banned from research and clinical treatment in the vain hope that this will stop recreational use. The scientific community should now challenge this pointless ban and get governments to improve their regulations so science can flourish., The United Nations drug control conventions of 1960 and 1971 and later additions have inadvertently resulted in perhaps the greatest restrictions of medical and life sciences research. These conventions now need to be revised to allow neuroscience to progress unimpeded and to assist in the innovation of treatments for brain disorders. In the meantime, local changes, such as the United Kingdom moving cannabis from Schedule 1 to Schedule 2, should be implemented to allow medical research to develop appropriately.,URLhttps//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4307971/,DOI10.1371/journal.pbio.1002047,ISSN1544-9173,notePMID 25625189nPMCID PMC4307971,shortTitleIllegal Drugs Laws,journalAbbreviationPLoS Biol,authorfamilyNutt,givenDavid,issueddate-parts2015,1,27,accesseddate-parts2019,4,18,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Nutt, 2015). Along with these, there are some other penalties like rehabilitation orders and also disqualification from driving for a lifetime. Certain States in Australia have programs that refer people with drug problem to education programs or treatment where such people are able to receive help rather than going to the criminal justice system ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDR4TSheEh,propertiesformattedCitation(McDonald, 2011),plainCitation(McDonald, 2011),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1630,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/FF3YRIUF,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/FF3YRIUF,itemDataid1630,typearticle-journal,titleAustralian governments spending on preventing and responding to drug abuse should target the main sources of drug-related harm and the most cost-effective interventions,container-titleDrug and Alcohol Review,page96-100,volume30,issue1,sourcePubMed,abstractA notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments drug budgets revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least 5288 million on drug abuse, with 50 of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45 to illicit drugs and just 5 to tobacco. Some 60 of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37 at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australias National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae.,DOI10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010.00197.x,ISSN1465-3362,notePMID 21219503,journalAbbreviationDrug Alcohol Rev,languageeng,authorfamilyMcDonald,givenDavid,issueddate-parts2011,1,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (McDonald, 2011).
Most of the production of illegal drugs that are commonly used are not regulated and they are made in labs which are illegal. When a person uses these drugs then he/she cannot be sure that what is the composition of the drug and also the adverse effect of the drug including the overdose and death if used in higher amount. A large part of the work and functioning of the justice system including the prisons, the judiciary and also the police is full with offenses that are related to the illegal drug consumption. There are many people who have criminal records just because of the possession of illegal drugs which were intended to personal use and this can further affect their work prospects ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDX8jhZJBy,propertiesformattedCitation(Hughes et al., 2017),plainCitation(Hughes et al., 2017),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1635,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/HZZCFBFT,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/HZZCFBFT,itemDataid1635,typearticle-journal,titleThe deterrent effects of Australian street-level drug law enforcement on illicit drug offending at outdoor music festivals,container-titleThe International Journal on Drug Policy,page91-100,volume41,sourcePubMed,abstractBACKGROUND Australian and international street-level drug law enforcement deploy many strategies in efforts to prevent or deter illicit drug offending. Limited evidence of deterrence exists. This study assessed the likely impacts of four Australian policing strategies on the incidence and nature of drug use and supply at a common policing target outdoor music festivals.nMETHODS A purpose-built national online survey (the Drug Policing Survey) was constructed using five hypothetical experimental vignettes that took into account four policing strategies (High Visibility Policing, Riot Policing, Collaborative Policing, and policing with Drug Detection Dogs) and a counter-factual (no police presence). The survey was administered in late 2015 to 2115 people who regularly attend festivals. Participants were block-randomised to receive two vignettes and asked under each whether they would use, possess, purchase, give or sell illicit drugs.nRESULTS Compared to no police presence, any police presence led to a 4.6 point reduction in engagement in overall illicit drug offending reducing in particular willingness to possess or carry drugs into a festival. However, it had minimal or counterproductive impacts on purchasing and supply. For example, given police presence, purchasing of drugs increased significantly within festival grounds. Offending impacts varied between the four policing strategies Drug Detection Dogs most reduced drug possession but High Visibility Policing most reduced overall drug offending including supply. Multivariate logistic regression showed police presence was not the most significant predictor of offending decisions at festivals.nCONCLUSIONCONCLUSION The findings suggest that street-level policing may deter some forms of drug offending at music festivals, but that most impacts will be small. Moreover, it may encourage some perverse impacts such as drug consumers opting to buy drugs within festival grounds rather than carry in their own. We use our findings to highlight trade-offs between the goals of public health promotion and crime control in street-level enforcement.,DOI10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.12.018,ISSN1873-4758,notePMID 28131615,journalAbbreviationInt. J. Drug Policy,languageeng,authorfamilyHughes,givenCaitlin Elizabeth,familyMoxham-Hall,givenVivienne,familyRitter,givenAlison,familyWeatherburn,givenDon,familyMacCoun,givenRobert,issueddate-parts2017,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Hughes et al., 2017). The overall legislation related to drugs is State-based which means that different States have different legal procedures and regulation in order to limit the use of illicit drugs. South Australia and Northern Territory have legalized the use of Cannabis by applying different civil punishments and for that, the person needs to meet certain eligibility criteria. Rest of the Australian States have no legalized options for any kind of illegal drugs. Majority of the Australian states have legalized the use of cannabis when the doctor has prescribed cannabis for a given medical condition ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDGbM8sVvq,propertiesformattedCitation(Degenhardt et al., 2005),plainCitation(Degenhardt et al., 2005),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1632,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/ZIK6EPFB,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/ZIK6EPFB,itemDataid1632,typearticle-journal,titleEvaluating explanations of the Australian heroin shortage,container-titleAddiction,page459-469,volume100,issue4,authorfamilyDegenhardt,givenLouisa,familyReuter,givenPeter,familyCollins,givenLinette,familyHall,givenWayne,issueddate-parts2005,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Degenhardt et al., 2005).
Although these are some of the laws that were implemented after negotiations and considerations but having said that these are not very effective approaches and the rate of use of the drugs including opiate, cannabis, and opium is increasing day by day. It is noteworthy here that most of the users are teenagers who start using these drugs due to the pleasing effects and then they become addicted to these drugs completely. Although according to the legislation these teenagers are exempted from any proper court proceedings and they are directed towards rehab programs but even then these programs are not very effective and the purchase and overall market of illegal drugs is increasing day by day. One of the main reason in the ineffectiveness of these rules is because of lack of fear of legal procedures among the public ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDtULOgNOj,propertiesformattedCitation(Willis, 2008),plainCitation(Willis, 2008),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1643,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/ZN9HQT5X,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/ZN9HQT5X,itemDataid1643,typearticle-journal,titleCannabis supply into and within Australia,container-titleCriminal Justice Bulletin Series,volume2,authorfamilyWillis,givenKatie,issueddate-parts2008,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Willis, 2008).
The legalization of Cannabis in major States of Australia is another reason that people are not taking the laws seriously and they are still involved in the trade and use of these drugs, and it has been proved through various research studies that Cannabis is a gateway for the dependence and use of other serious drugs like ice and opiates due to this legalization the intensity of the punishment was reduced to a few dollars fine and a few days in imprisonment as a result, the users dont feel the need to stick to the laws and they are not taking it seriously. If the Australian government wants to make the laws effective then it has to make sure that the addictive drugs are not easily available for the public, they must first make sure that all the suppliers are banned completely and this can be done by properly investigating every suspicious place. and also to reduce the availability of drugs and specifically cannabis the government has to make sure that taxes are applied to cannabis because this is the root from where the dependency to drugs start ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationIDKLiYc3al,propertiesformattedCitation(Wodak, 2015),plainCitation(Wodak, 2015),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1637,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/U5R8YY2U,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/U5R8YY2U,itemDataid1637,typearticle-journal,titleThe failure of drug prohibition and the future of drug law reform in Australia,container-titleAustralian Prescriber,page148-149,volume38,issue5,sourcePubMed Central,DOI10.18773/austprescr.2015.054,ISSN0312-8008,notePMID 26648647nPMCID PMC4657303,journalAbbreviationAust Prescr,authorfamilyWodak,givenAlex,issueddate-parts2015,10,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Wodak, 2015).
The use of the illicit drug is not the only problem in Australia but it is a problem around the world and every country has its own strategies and legislation to save its people from the drug dependency. The US government has finalized some rules and regulations regarding illegal drug use and these rules are applied to every kind of drug there is no exception in any one of them. If an individual is caught while using or trading any of these drugs that he/she has to go through the legal processes which include a court hearing along with fine, imprisonment and rehabilitation services. Exceptions are there depending on the age and mental state of the individual but these exceptions do not apply to the type of drug because in the United States of America every drug that induces some pleasuring effects is banned and if there is a risk of dependency on the drugs then that is considered as an abusive drug ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION citationID6042xk0p,propertiesformattedCitation(Johnson, 2002),plainCitation(Johnson, 2002),noteIndex0,citationItemsid1640,urishttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/ZYC9C8M3,urihttp//zotero.org/users/local/4C6u8dIT/items/ZYC9C8M3,itemDataid1640,typearticle-journal,titleUS border enforcement Drugs, migrants, and the rule of law,container-titleVill. L. Rev.,page897,volume47,authorfamilyJohnson,givenKevin R.,issueddate-parts2002,schemahttps//github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json (Johnson, 2002). The problem with the Australian drug use and laws is that it has created confusion among the public by legalizing some drugs and as a result, the intensity of penalties in the trade and use of those drugs has also reduced. Although cannabis is equally addictive and dangerous, it is decriminalized in Australia due to which the people know that if they get caught while using the drug then the penalties will not be severe. As a result, people get involved in the use of the drug without fearing the law. In order to eradicate the use of illegal drugs the Australian government has to exclude cannabis from the list of legal drugs and the penalties for cannabis should also be the same as other drugs.
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Degenhardt, L., Reuter, P., Collins, L., Hall, W., 2005. Evaluating explanations of the Australian heroin shortage. Addiction 100, 459469.
Drugs and the Law WWW Document, n.d. Positive Choices. URL https//positivechoices.org.au/teachers/drugs-and-the-law (accessed 4.18.19).
Hall, W., Solowij, N., 1998. Adverse effects of cannabis. The lancet 352, 16111616.
Hughes, C.E., Moxham-Hall, V., Ritter, A., Weatherburn, D., MacCoun, R., 2017. The deterrent effects of Australian street-level drug law enforcement on illicit drug offending at outdoor music festivals. Int. J. Drug Policy 41, 91100. https//doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.12.018
Johnson, K.R., 2002. US border enforcement Drugs, migrants, and the rule of law. Vill. L. Rev. 47, 897.
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Moles, R.J., Stehlik, P., 2015. Pharmacy practice in Australia. The Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy 68, 418.
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