Understanding Victimology And Related Theories
Understanding Victimology and Related Theories
Two victimization theories which have been selected for this discussion are victim-blaming theory and routine activities approach. In victim-blaming theory, the victims are partly held responsible for misconduct. According to this theory, victims should be aware of the dangers that may have existed in society and should take necessary precautions against the danger CITATION NBG93 \l 1033 (NB Gray, 1993). A victim who does not take the necessary precautions to maintain a certain level of safety is seen as blameworthy. Victim blame theory is commonly used in cases of domestic abuse against women CITATION LKe96 \l 1033 (L Kelly, 1996). In the case of domestic or sexual abuse, the victim is asked why she had not left when there was a chance and why had she stayed in an abusive relationship. In victim-blaming theory, victims are seen as partially responsible for the actions of offenders CITATION NBG93 \l 1033 (NB Gray, 1993).
The second theory, the routine activities theory revolves around three parameters which are the absence of a capable guardian, suitable target, and potential offender. In routine activity theory, offender or criminal are assumed to be rational in making their decisions. According to the routine activity theory, it is assumed that the abuser is maybe under the influence of some person, drug, or condition. It is one of the most used theory in criminology. Like victim-blame theory, routine activity theory can also be used in domestic violence. According to the routine activity theory, crime occurs in the presence of an essential element which motivates the offender. The essential element can be the absence of capable guardianship or an easy attractive target. According to this definition of routine activities approach, it is similar to victim-blaming theory as the easy target can be victim which is partially held responsible for a crime in victim-blaming theory. In routine activity theory, a guardian can protect the victim of the crime. In victim-blame theory, precaution could have the potential to protect the victim of the crime. According to both theories, victims have the choice of putting themselves in a situation which may have prevented the crime. According to victim blame theory, the victim is asked why she had not left when there was a chance and why had she stayed in an abusive relationship. In victim blaming theory, victims are seen as partially responsible for the actions of offenders CITATION NBG93 \l 1033 (NB Gray, 1993). According to routine activities approach, the victim is asked why there was no necessary steps are taken for the prevention of the crime. Although in routine activity theory, the victim is not held responsible for the crime CITATION ERG07 \l 1033 (Groff, 2007).
In victim blame theory, the responsibility of a criminal incident is partially removed from the abuser by partially blaming the victim. In routine activity theory, the responsibility of crime is partially removed from the abuser by partially blaming the influence of some drug or some condition. In both theories, the complete responsibility of crime is not fully blamed on the abuser. Unlike victim blame theory, routine activity theory closely relates crime to the environment while diverting attention away from the abuser/ offender. Routine activity theory sees the offender who has the intention to do the crime but are not capable of doing it CITATION ERG07 \l 1033 (Groff, 2007). Similarly, in victim blame theory the offender is seen as a person who would not have committed a crime if he/she doesn’t have the opportunity CITATION BFM14 \l 1033 (BF Malle, 2014). In routine activity theory, the suitable target can be a vulnerable person, object, property, or an organization. The guardianship can be a person, a security step which may have avoided the crime. In victim blame theory, the victim is also blamed for the occurrence of crime. In the routine activity theory, the victim is not blamed for the occurrence of crime.
BIBLIOGRAPHY BF Malle, S. G. (2014). A theory of blame. Psychological Inquiry.
Groff, E. (2007). Simulation for theory testing and experimentation: An example using routine activity theory and street robbery. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.
L Kelly, S. B. (1996). Beyond victim or survivor: Sexual violence, identity and feminist theory and practice. Sexualizing the social.
NB Gray, G. P. (1993). Explaining rape victim blame: A test of attribution theory. Sociological Spectrum.
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