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What are the concerns of the downriver countries over the freshwater access?
The most important water source for both Jordan and Israel is Jordan River. Three sources, the Dan, the Hasbani and the Banias feed the upper Jordan. Both these countries signed a peace agreement since 1994, but Jordan is being pressurized to annul the peace agreement by other Arab countries. As a reaction to this, Israel threatened Jordan that they would cut their water supply, so if Israel is going to cut off the water supply, Jordan would be unable to meet the freshwater needs of its people.
The water crisis has become one of the threatening issues for various countries, but talking in a political scenario it has been witnessed that most of the countries like Iraq in which water heads are linked or controlled by Turkey. A terrible situation is being created by Turkey as it has taken a decision to postpone filling of the massive upstream dam because of which level of the Tigris River is declining. Around 70 percent of Iraq’s water is coming from Tigris and Euphrates rivers, both of which run through Turkey. Social media and other activists are calling for a boycott of Turkish items while some are insisting that table talk should be initiated for settling the issue down. Iraq is looking for the corporation of Turkey for getting access to the fresh water.
Sudan and Egypt
Egypt comes under the list of the countries that depends on other countries for accessing the fresh water. Taking a look at the world geography, it could be said that the Blue Nile rises in Ethiopia that flows towards Sudan where it joins White Nile, from where it flows towards Egypt. From the River Nile, both Sudan and Egypt fulfill their fresh water needs. Everything was going smoothly but things went wrong when the Ethiopian government planned on making the Grand Ethiopian Resistance Dam (GERD) to store the water. This decision made Sudan and mainly Egypt concerned about water as they rely on the Nile River for drinking water as well as for irrigating crops. Egypt has always viewed the Nile River as its own and both countries (Ethiopia and Egypt) are fighting over the fresh water.
Lonergan, S. C. (2018). Water and conflict: Rhetoric and reality. In Environmental conflict (pp. 109-124). Routledge.
Yousuf, M., Rapantova, N., & Younis, J. (2018). Sustainable water management in Iraq (Kurdistan) as a challenge for governmental responsibility. Water, 10(11), 1651.
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