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By taking history in accounts, it has been seen that there exist different versions of the same story. Different writers used to write the same story, though the main storyline remains the same. This fact cannot be denied that there is an impact of time, in which a piece of literature is written. “The Seven Voyages of Sindbad” is a story that has been translated and edited by various writers with little innovation in it. Authorship has a significant influence on the style in which a story is represented. By taking a look at both versions of “The Seven Voyages of Sindbad”, it could be seen clearly that the writing style of both the versions is torching a light on the way how both the writers are depicting and highlighting main things of their age. One of the most important things that could be seen in both these versions is the characterization of the main character. It depends on the audience how they are going to view Sindbad as a character, as both the version has spotted a light on two opposing sides. The version of the story would help the reader in making a perception about Sindbad. Reflection of readers could be mold by using both, the tool of time and author's way of looking at things.
Composition of the story has been seen greatly influenced by the time in which that story was written. There are obvious pieces of evidence that have been depicted in the version written by Antonie Gallard, that the time that has been depicted by Antoine was the Golden Age of Muslims. This is the time period in which Basra was a famous trade port for Muslims and Harun al-Rashid was caliph, who was famous for his generosity, shows all the positive side of Sindbad, who has been portrayed as faithful and obedient person who despite taking a decision of having no more voyage, goes on voyage for accomplishing the task assigned by the caliph. In his version, Antonie has used a language that writers used to utilize in their texts for making them appealing for the readers, and he tried to use informal kind of language for making his text more realistic. But by taking a look at the version written by Husain Haddawy, character of Sindbad has been depicted as a greedy person who just wanted to have more and more for resources for satisfying his appetite of wealth. There could be seen a complete shift in the language and the way the structure of the story is presented.
It has been seen that authorship defines and molds the story and this thing could be realized by taking a look at literal texts. Thought that the author wants to inculcate in the minds of the readers by presenting various sides and aspects, makes a picture in the mind of the readers. Pieces of evidence could be seen from the story of Sindbad, as both the translators, tried to portray the same character by using their power of pen. They both created a different picture of Sindbad, the sailor. By having an in-depth analysis of the two texts, one could see role of an author while developing the image of a character. It has become quite evident that if the author wants the reader to have a positive image of the story he would create such scenario through his style of writing that the reader is going to think about a story or writing, in a positive way. If author wants the reader to have negative thought, this would be also possible by the use his writing skills. In the version translated by Husain Haddawy, the author has netted the story in such a way that readers get a negative image of Sindbad for some time as he has been portrayed as a greedy person who despite having much wanted to add more in his wealth and got stuck in perils.
But on the other hand, it has been seen that the version translated by Antonie Gallard, Sindbad has been portrayed as an individual who is obedient, faithful and sincere. This is the part of the human psyche and many psychologists have proved, that most people are going to perceive a thing, the way it is being represented. History has supported this point many times that the author makes up the ideology of the masses, and the impact of the writing becomes obvious on the lives of readers. In literature, there is concept, according to which it is being said that writer's personality used to have a great impact on his writing so likewise there would be a great impact of the writing of a writer on readers.
Another major thing is the time in which a thing is being written. It has generally been seen that time period has a great influence on the way a writer is going to write about a thing. In the given version it has been seen that in one text, the setting has been depicted in a way that it reflects dominance of Islam in a specific reign (Hawari,et,al,1980). Time that has been portrayed in Antoine's version supports the period when Islam was at its peak, and the setting of the story advocates and supports this point as well. Time frame is one of the elements that would be given prime focus in any writing. By having an analysis of any literary text, it becomes evident that only those things are going to be written that would be appropriate according to the time in which a text has been written. We are mainly concerned with two separates versions of "The Seven Voyage of Sindbad, it could be seen in both the texts that things are following a certain time frame.
Language of both the texts is quite different as both the texts are written in two different periods. By analyzing both the texts carefully, this fact could be easily observed and understand that time cast a great impact on the nature of a text. By looking at the version that has been given by Husain Haddawy, it could be claimed that it is not as old as the version of Antoine, by looking at the setting of the plot of both texts showcase things that are important for a specific time period. For example, in Antoine's version, there is a depiction of the culture as there was involvement of caliphs and slaves that points toward the time of Islamic rule. It has been seen that the concept of slaves and caliphs used to exist in old ages, so it becomes evident that time significantly influences writing and by looking at the events, setting, characters, and other things would never have any conflict with the time in which that text is being written.
By taking both versions of the same story in accounts, that are being written by two different writers and in different time, this fact cannot be denied that there would arise many questions in the minds of the readers who would read this story. It is quite evident that readers who would read Husain Haddawy's translation that would be based on text edited by Muhsin Mahdi would take it in a different way. The version that has been given by Husain Haddawy depicts greed of society, protagonist and the entire scenario, that has been built in this version points toward the time that would be different from time sketched in any other version. In this scenario, few things that have been sketched by Husain points toward modernism as it has been seen that in this version of Sindbad there is a discussion on trade and specifically the items that have been quoted shows that it was the time when people started developing the areas. In the given version by Husain, it could be guessed by time that this story does not point towards ancient time as people were aware of the things that are popular nowadays.
So, as a whole, it could be said that the impact of time in which a text is being written cannot be denied at all. Also, the audience or the readers are going to have a perception about a thing that would be built upon on the thinking of the author. No one could deny impact of time and author's influence on the writing. For the overall scenario, it could be said, that the way a writer presents a thing before his reader, reflects his personality and the time in which that particular text was being written. From both the versions, it has been seen that the techniques that the writer uses in his writing determines his purpose of the overall text. Understanding the underlying purpose, psyche of the writer and time in which he wrote, would help the readers in understanding a text and context in which the writer has written that text. An exegetical analysis reveals that the understanding of text refers to a direct approach that can give information about the writer and his thinking. In the same way, both the writings have added to the body of knowledge by inferring specific traits and attributes such as human nature, religious beliefs, social spectrum, the influence of society and the interference of political and public factors such as the type of government and approach towards other people.
Hawari, R. (1980). Antoine Galland's Translation of" The Arabian Nights". Revue de littérature comparée, 54(2), 150.
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