Unit Test On Medieval Civilization
Name of Student
Name of Professor
Name of Class
Day Month Year
Christianity during Medieval Periods
Christianity during Medieval Periods
Write an essay on medieval empires and how Christianity spread throughout Europe. Describe their governmental structure and medieval society.
Middle ages lasted from 5 to 15th century; the time between the declivity of Roman Empire and augmentation of “the age of discovery” or the Renaissance. Pope Innocent III—the most influential pope of Church history came up with the revolutionary idea that world must be overruled by popes followed by the relegation of Constantinople and re-surmounting of Spain. Pope Francis on the other hand, took a firm stand against socioeconomic lopsidedness and assisted underprivileged individuals, actively rejecting the materialism. Their directives of destitution, demureness and retribution propelled common people to follow their direction. This was one of the most pivotal reasons behind nurturance of Christianity during Medieval ages in Europe. Friars were given formalized sanction by Pope Innocent; instead of keeping themselves confined to the cloister, they set out for evangelizing and preaching Christianity. In 1095, simmering hold of Seljuk Turks in the Byzantine Empire in Anatolia appealed Pope Urban II to make active attempts and Crusades originated. It was being preached as a pilgrimage hence many common people offered their services to this journey. Crusades were executed in three consecutive centuries from 11th to 13th but only first Crusade welcomed constructive results however, their hold onto the Jerusalem was exceptionally short-lived. 88 years after the triumph, Jerusalem was again taken back by Muslim Emperors in 1187. Both 2nd and 3rd Crusades encountered serious deterioration (Asbridge, 2018).
Write an essay that describes the development of urbanization during the Medieval Era. What contributed to urban growth? With urbanization; markets and means of exchange became more sophisticated. What changes had occurred, who was involved and benefited from it?
11th century welcomed agricultural revolution resulting in population growth and urbanization. Invention and modification of advance industrial tools e.g., watermills, heavy plow and three field systems for appropriate nitrogen fixation improvised European’s diet and nutrition vastly resulting in enhanced life expectancy and health maintenance. In addition, commercialization forced laborers to join urban fields in Spain, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia which led to the expansion of cities—the urbanization. Cities started providing safe heavens to the merchants and eventual dominance of American economy during 18th century. Italian cities—Pisa, Genoa and Venice—acted as the epicenters of dominance throughout the world. Sugar plantation and spice trade added much to the regeneration of capital in European markets. This advancement helped Crusades in an indirect manner.
Explain the expansion of the power of the Church during this period. Describe the papal state and its infrastructure. What roles did Pope Gregory and Pope Innocent III have in the power consolidation of the Church? Did anyone challenge the Church, and what was the outcome of those conflicts?
Several Popes were in view that they themselves are entitled to have absolute authority over Europe and all Christian communities, eliminating the role of Kings completely. “The Truce of God” then struggled to reduce tension between Kings and Pops over power transference naming it as the Investiture Struggle. As a result of open advocacy of Pope Gregory VII about Pope Rule over Churches, Henry IV perceived it as a direct threat to his authority. This perception led Henry to collect his German bishops and asked them to proclaim freedom from the Pope. In response, he vindicated all of them inviting revolt from German Princess. In order to gain even a minor victory, both were struggling to combat each other. Concordat of Worms attempted to settle the matter; only ecclesiastical authorities were entitled to direct their attendant religious forced and offices to the clergy—not from the Kings. Clergy was hence, made more self-determined but essentially less worldly through the intervention of Concordat of Worms.
Asbridge, T. 2018. “Episode 1: Holy Land | Crusades.” BBC Documentary. Accessed from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vOyswuA8wEs&feature=youtu.be
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