Short Answer 1
From Paine and the Sons of Liberty, the arguments for independence
In the old and current historiography, the Thomas Paine's life period fades most often or is only treated as an appendage to the career of the old revolutionary. Thus, apart from the biographies that address it in epilogue, it has not aroused any research even if a book by Nathalie Caron studies the religious question in the years 1790-1800. “It is essential to the freedom and security of a free people, that no taxes be imposed upon them but by their own consent, or their representatives (Niles, Hezekiah, pg.1)”. Paine recalls the context in which the first state constitutions were adopted: that of the war of independence and therefore of an emergency that allowed the English model then still present in all minds to creep into part of the constitutional provisions.
Paine takes this position in favor of what generations called the firm building, that is to argue of a limiting beginning of the governmental prerogative, against the Federalists who, they, defended a comprehensive English construction that gave the executive a broad prerogative. He applies severe building the problem of deeds and dominations decided by state executives to companies, often banks.
The US experience is not condensed to individuality, it is the pro-republic building depend on the right of males and principles of worldwide liberty that is the consequence, not the parting of the gatherings from the English metropolis. “A government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool deliberate manner, while we have it in our power, than to trust such an interesting event to time and chance” (Foner, pg 4).
The last texts of Paine are emblematic of a "moment", that of the transition from the revolutionary generation age to the subsequent. The Republic necessity be continually re-founded in "organizations" which remind the public body of the source of its privileges and the manner of preserving them. The cosmopolitan, universalist, and fundamental dimension of the US Revolution is a democrat experience presented to all peoples in contradiction of realms or "monocratic" governments, in contradiction of "usual" or wealthy aristocracies, against the confiscation of the sovereignty of all the people by political factions.
Niles, Hezekiah. "Principles and Acts of the American Revolution." (1822).
Foner, Eric. Voices of Freedom: A Documentary History (Fifth Edition) (Vol. 1) (Page 102). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.
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