History and Anthropology: Senior Essay
There is a number of topics that are crucial and significant to research and study. Almost a research on every topic brings something new to one's study and contributes a lot to the understanding of one regarding his or her study and analysis. It is also important to conduct research one something which can be found more credible to the readers of the research paper. As well as it is also crucial that every topic or event does not catch the interest of researchers or the readers of the paper. Hence it is important to consider that choosing something credible to research is essential. Beyond that, choosing a concern to research and study that have impacts on the entire world can be sounder. So based on these reasons, there are many areas to study but based on my view, the event of the 9/11 attacks can be found very crucial to study and conduct research on. So this paper is an academic research paper about the event of the 9/11 attacks. In this paper, we will research the 9/11 attacks in terms of analyzing some of the crucial and critical aspects of the event. The aspects that would be researched, analyzed, and studied in this paper are the physiological and economic-political aspects of the 9/11 attacks in the world.
September 11 attacks also called 9 attacks is the series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks on the United States. The 9/11attacks were committed in 2001 by 19 militants associated with the extremist group called Al-Qaeda against the different targets in the United States of America. The 9/11attacks were one of the deadliest attacks ever committed by a group in the entire history of the United States. In the 9/11attacks, the attacks on the state of Washington DC and New York caused extensive destruction and death and triggered an amorous effort of the United States to combat terrorism as well as the presidency of George W. Bush has been defined. Around 2750 individuals got killed in New York while around 184 at the Pentagon and 40 in Pennsylvania (where hijacked planes in the hijacked planes of 9/11got crashed after the attempt of the passengers to retake the plane) and all of the 19 terrorists died. The department of police and fire departments in New York had been hit the hardest in the 9/11attacks. Hundreds of the people have also rushed to the scene of attacks and almost all of them including more than 400 police officers and firefighters got killed in the attacks (Kimberly, N.P).
In the 9/11attacks, two of the planes were flown and into the tower called twin towers of the World Trade Center in the city of New York. While the third hit the Pentagon outside the states of Washington DC and the 4th plane of the 9/11attacks crashed in a field in the Shank Ville, Pennsylvania.
Significance of Studying 9/11
There are a number of events and cases that can be found as crucial and significant to study and analyze. These are significant to study and research because of several problems. But! We have selected 9/11 to research and study. This has been taken to study because it can be considered crucially important to study one of the major events ever came to see in the history of the United States. 9/11 is also crucial to study because it was one of the deadliest situations ever faced by the nation. Beyond that, the case has been brought under analysis because it was not only one of the deadliest attacks on the U.S. but it has impacted the entire country and nations in many other ways such as economically, politically, physiologically, and socially. Despite that, the attacks and firefighting did by the firefighters also have mental and physical impacts on the nations and people (Utley, N.P). In short, there is a number of reasons because of which 9/11 has been brought under analyses and research for this research paper.
After analyzing every aspect of the topic we have at hand or the topic which would be researched in the paper, we came to answer the Research Question listed below.
What can be the crucial physiological and economic-political impacts and bearings of the attacks of 9/11 in the world and on the American nation?
The paper will be covering the above mentioned (main) topic by answering the research question listed in the report. Furthermore, this paper is also concerned with the provision of additional about the main research topic. As well as the paper analysis almost every aspect of 9/11 but the main analysis is about the physiological and economic-political aspects. In short, analysis and concluding the aforementioned topic (physiological and economic-political aspects of 9/11) is the main focus of the paper. Hence, the thesis statement that answers the research question of the paper is;
"In order to get more knowledge about 9/11 and to have a clear idea about crucial aspects of it, analyzing the aspects of the attacks is crucial to study. But! It can be found challenging up to the extent that analyzing every aspect of 9/11 cannot be easy because of the unavailability of some information due to a number of reasons. Hence, it could be credible and useful if the physiological and economic-political aspects get analyzed and understood. In short, the paper is about to research and analyze the physiological and economic-political aspects of the 9/11 attacks as well as what are the main impacts of the attacks in the world and on the nation in these aspects.
On September 11, 2001, a hurting attack was made on the state of America. In this attack, four systematic terrorist attacks were pulled on different regions of the country t=by a group called Al Qaeda. In New York, the tower of World Trade Center has been brought down by the terrorists in their attacks and damaged Pentagon in Washington DC as well. The attacks made on September 11 left the United States in its history. A number of aspects got impacted by this event. But a turning point for the US was the inverse impacts on the political, economic and political systems while the physiological impacts were also crucial. Just after the attacks came to see, president G W. Bush called for a war against the terrorism almost in the whole world (Morgan, N.P). This has been done aggressively by the president of the time because of the attacks of 9/11took the US on almost the worst way in that time because of the huge and worst impacts of the attacks on the cities in the United States.
It is not only the United States that suffer losses from the 9/11attacks while a number of countries and almost the entire world get impacted badly. This means that each of the world’s countries suffered huge losses from the 9/11attacks. Because of a number of reasons, America did not fall in war with the terrorism out of its region while they also got involved in a war with themselves. This happened because of a huge conflict raised in the nation of the country as well. These conflicts raised because of several reasons such as economic systems, and politics as well as government (Hall, and Andrew, P.P. 847-879). It has come to see because a number of people who were not impacted by the war or those who had not struggled in these attacks because they were not from the regions or cities attacked in the 9/11attacks started to break the laws and policies which are designed to protect the people and the human rights while there was nothing racial and rational.
Physiological Aspects of the 9/11Attacks in the World
It cannot be considered as wrong if has been said or stated that the physiological impacts of the 9/11attacks the worst level. Just an after 9, around 50 percent of the citizens living near to the World Trade Center participated in a survey about the physiological impacts of the 9/11attacks on them and other health needs and concerns stated that they are struggling with the problem of irritation of eye, nose, and throat (Abu-Ras, and Soleman, P.P. 393-418). The admissions of the people in the hospital just after few days of the 9/11attacks got a huge increase. The increase has seen especially in the increasing number of women and old aged people aged over 65 years.
Beyond that, the fetal growth in the women living in the regions or cities attacked in the 9/11attacks by the terrorist groups has also seen critically reducing. A study of the women states that according to pregnant women in the region, the main cause of the reducing fetal growth is the exposure of the attacks especially the attack on the WTC. The disaster literature which is not specific to the 9/11attacks states that the development of children in the areas got impacted inversely. They got impacted by the material mental health more than the direct effects of the event of 9/11attacks (NYC Health, N.P).
The physiological impacts of the 9/11attacks are very hurting because the attacks impacted the people in a way that lead to newer behaviors and addictions to a number of other problems and habits. For example, the number of the smoke plume in the areas nearer to the World Trade Center shown a huge increase after the event of 9/11attacks. The smoke plum has increased the number of heart patients in New York. As a result, some of the people who live near the WTC were at a higher risk for persistent symptoms after the event. Beyond that, a huge and increasing number of respiratory symptoms in almost the entire world can be witnessed as a result of the attacks of 9. Despite this, the medical researchers also found that the people of America as well as citizens of the close countries to the US seen struggling with the abnormal lungs after the attacks. They found that around 180 enrollees with the persistent respiratory symptoms were more likely to have abnormal lung functions than of the enrollees who had not been reported any new respiratory symptoms since the 9/11attacks (Bonanno, et al P.P. 181-186).
In terms of the increase in the death rate, the physiological aspect of the 9/11attacks is critically hurting and badly impacting the area. Based on the findings of the (Carnagey, and Craig, P.P. 118-129), around 790 deaths from 2002 to 2008 among the 41, 930 young adults has occurred because of the impacts of the 9/11attacks on the World Trade Center in the New York. This showed an increase of death up to 43 percent of the young adults after the deadliest attacks on America (Carnagey, and Craig, P.P. 118-129). The physiological aspects as well as physiological impacts can be witnessed as the worst because the people or citizens of the united states as well as people of other nearer countries who were impacted by the 9/11attacks, were more likely to have several mental and physical disorders in which the one and most common is the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This disorder and its presence were much lower in the people before the attacks of 9/11but as after the attacks of 9, the presence of this problem has been witnessed with an increasing rate (Kramer, et al, P.P. 10-13).
Mental Health after 9/11
It has been reported that the individuals who had been directly affected by 9/11 had been more vulnerable to 'post-traumatic stress disorder' (PTSD), and would likely show the related symptoms within six months. Besides this, a considerable number of individuals not directly affected by 9/11 had also been reported to give the same response to acquiring PTSD.
The study of resilience among the New Yorkers revealed encouraging results. Contrary to what was believed previously, the New Yorkers showed higher levels of resilience during the six months after 9/11. The proportion of individuals who demonstrated resilience never dropped below 33 percent, even in those individuals who experienced the highest levels of exposure and had the maximum degree of probability to acquire PTSD. On average, the resilience of citizens remained 65 percent.
A research conducted on low-income patients seven to sixteen months after 9/11 disclosed that people suffering from the 9/11 incident were two times prone to be reported with a mental illness, like anxiety, depressive disorder, etc. These people were prone to suffer functional disorders and loss of work (NYC Health, N.P). Persons who had their loved ones involved in 9/11 in any sense, rescue, recovery struggle, or similar, were two times prone to mental health disorders.
A study conducted on New Yorkers, with age range of 18-21 having or not the anxiety disorder, made comparisons between their mental health pro- and post-9/11 periods. The study revealed that the young people who had generalized anxiety disorder demonstrated higher rates of functional disorders (Ford, et al, P.P. 572-578. However, an increase in PTSD symptoms was noticed in those individuals. Another study entailed interviewing the citizens of New York at the end of three consecutive years after 9/11, which showed that brief and immediate interventions given to the patients had proved to be more effective as compared to the extensive interventions. Support from friends and relatives was very helpful in the recovery process (Hamilton, N.P). Several mental health problems were associated with psychological trauma, including the use of alcohol.
The NYC death records showed that the suicide rates did not increase during the four years after 9/11, based on a comparison between pre- and post-9/11. A study conducted on 455 people screened for mental illnesses revealed that the rate of PTSD had decreased as the time passed after 9/11. Those who had PTSD trajectory before 9/11 had ten times more chances of acquiring PTSD (Ohlsson, P.P. 6-18). A national mortality study revealed that the rates of suicide had declined substantially during the six months after 9/11.
The World after 9/11
No single event since the Second World War has put some much worst impacts on the word as the attacks of 9/11 by Al Qaeda. Almost the entire world has been impacted by the event of 9/11attacks while the whole world also responded to the group and terrorists involved in the attacks on America. It was a brief movement regarding the moral supremacy of the United States. Through launching armed aggression by America against many countries and terrorist groups, the United States completely squandered it again. The armed aggression has been firstly launched against Afghanistan and then against Iraq. The war impacted the entire world and human communities inversely and gone on the opposing side of the expectations of the world even the amount spent on the war against terrorism by the United States after the 9/11attacks was financed through borrowing (Sidhu, and Neha, N.P). While, as a result, it did not ensure the outcomes which were expected by the world form the powerful nation and country of the world.
It is also a fact that the response of the united states and the world was out of the expectations of the terrorist groups all over the world while especially the group who were involved in the 9/11attacks. So strong and aggressive responses came to see from the country (United States) and the entire world because every aspect of the attacks has impacted almost every second individual on the earth. Said by someone great, the value of a human is far more than the value of a financial thing (Ohlsson, P.P. 6-18). So based on this statement, the response was so hard towards terrorism because the event had not only impacted nations financially but it had impacted the lives of human beings in many regions of the world.
Economic-Political Aspect of 9/11 Attacks in the World
As the physiological aspect, the economic-political aspect of the 9/11attacks is also aching. The economic-political aspect of the 9/11attacks can be found impacted even worst. The effects of 9/11attacks ion the economic and political areas of the world include both short term and long terms impacts. The economic and political impacts of the 9/11attacks almost (not all) continue today in the world. First of all, the attacks cost the terrorist group for around 400,000 to 500, 0000 dollars to plan the attacks on the New York and Pentagon where the total cost for them has been estimated at 3.3 billion dollars (Kimberly, N.P).
The very bad cause of the 9/11attacks is it’s caused the 2001 recession due to the cause it put on the Dow and dropped around 700 points. Despite this, it also costs the economy of the United States because it led the War of Terror which is one of the most prominent causes of the spending of the government of America in the history of the US. This breakdown also includes immediate costs for almost the entire world while putting the physical damages and inverse economic impacts. Beyond that, it also impacted the leadership and political system all over the world. The political system got impacted due to the 9/11attacks because the political leadership of the world switched their interest from other concerns and activities towards the control and elimination of terrorism (Hall, and Andrew, P.P. 847-879). Furthermore, the 9/11attacks also led to a huge need for better and strong security, more funds for war, and additional future war costs.
Economics and Costs of 9/11attacks to us and the world
The funding which has been allocated and used for the attacks was the amount for 1,649 billion dollars that include funding from different terrorist bodies. While the economic costs to the United States include several factors and costs. First of all, the 9/11attacks made total damage to Toll and Physical damage that costs for 55 billion dollars while economic impacts on the country count for 123 billion dollars. Beyond that, it also puts the US in a need to have better and stronger homeland security after the situation they faced. Hence, it costs America for 589 billion dollars while they had the costs of 867 billion dollars for the Future War and veterans care.
The Global Economic Impact
It was the first time in the US history that the stock market remained closed for four working days after the incident happened. During the Great Depression in 1933, it closed for two days only. The Federal Reserve lowered the fed funds to 3.0 percent. The Dow fell instantly closing at 8.920.70. The loss of 617.78 points was the worst drop at that time. However, the stock market recovered these losses within one month. Oil prices dropped from $23.77 per barrel to $15.95 within three months (IRMI, N.P). The loss of the Airline industry was reported to be five billion dollars. 1000 planes were grounded. Thousands of workers became inactive and granted leaves of absence.
Business Takes a Hit
9/11 had a strong impact on business. Gold prices rose to $287 per ounce. Prices of gas and oil were also increased. It was due to the fears of businessmen that the imports might be confined to the decreased limit. However, this situation prevailed for one week, and the issue was resolved as no new attacks were observed. The insurance companies had to confront claims of nearly $40 billion.
The economic-political aspect of the 9/11attacks can be found a bit in contrast from one's view to another's view. In short, the economic-political aspect of the 9/11attacks is considered unfair when looking at the view of citizens of Iraq but the American considered the hanging of Saddam Hussein as an act of ensuring a peace and terror-free world (Morgan, N.P).
Methods and Sources
For the research paper, methods data collection needs for the study is the process of gathering appropriate information, facts, figures, and other values and details available to best answer the research question and bring out fully accurate and fine results or outcomes of the study. For this research paper, both methods (primary method and secondary method) of research and data collection have been used but preferences have been given to the second method as per the nature of the research paper. The paper is an academic research paper, so that is why the secondary methods have been used more than the primary method and sources.
The secondary data, as well as information available about our research question, have been sued more than the own primary research. In the secondary method, the collection of data and relevant information including but not only the facts and figures from the researches, papers, articles, surveys by organizations, journals, and other credible online sources. These mentioned resources have been utilized more than the others because these sources can provide and do provide credible data and information regarding the main concern of the paper. Beyond that, these sources also have plenty of information about the event of the 9/11 attacks and have a huge amount of details about almost every aspect of the event.
Primary Data Collection & Sources
The primary methods of data used in the paper are mainly categorized into two major categories called qualitative data and quantitative data. Qualitative data is a type of data that does not provides numbers and statistics or the mathematical numbers for analysis. While on the other side, quantitative data ensures the provision of numbers and statistics available for analysis.
The research question of the paper can be best answered by the use of both qualitative and quantitative data and analysis. So, both, qualitative and quantitative data and methods have been used to bring the best results of the study. Despite that, the qualitative data also provides an in-depth and clearer understanding of the facts and information about the research topic and question. Hence, the qualitative data (primary) used in this research paper includes analysis of case studies, observations of people's views, and group studies.
Secondary Data Collection & Sources
The secondary data and resources have been more than the primary. This has been done so because the secondary sources are the ways that ensure higher reliability, validity, and soundness of the study and results. Despite this, the secondary sources and data available also empower and enhances the quality of the research and analysis while provides better results than the other methods and data used. And that is why the secondary sources have been prioritized for the paper.
Further, as the paper is an academic research paper, so the qualitative and secondary data and resources have been used more than the primary and quantitative.in short the secondary and qualitative data and sources have been used comparatively more. Hence, the secondary sources and data that are used in the paper include researches, research papers, research statistics (findings), articles, journals, and books about the research topic (physiological and economic-political aspects of the 9/11 attacks in the world).
After analyzing every fact about the 9/11attacks and its different aspects in the world. The results can be drawn that both the physiological and economic-political aspects of the 9/11attacks are almost the worst in the entire. The results of the paper mainly state that the 9/11attacks impacted the lives of human beings in almost every corner of the world. This has been found so because the attacks affected the people in the US while the war on terror them impacted other regions and countries of the world such as Afghanistan and Iraq. While a number of nations are still getting impacted as a result of 9/11attacks.
In terms of economic-political aspect of the 9/11attacks in the world, the entire world got affected in terms of costs, loss of lives of people, and in terms of newer political leadership. Generally, the economic-political aspect of the 9/11attacks can be elaborated in the way that it hit the world and put the nations in economic troubles where the biggest example is the 2001 recession (Utley, N.P). While it also witched the politics and leadership of the world in a way that countries especially American switched its focus from a number of development activities towards ensuring better security.
After an in-depth analysis of the research topic, question and data and information, it has been concluded that both, the physiological and economic-political aspects are crucial to study and understand. It is so because as mentioned above, the world got impacted very badly by the 9/11attacks. In short, the world and nations got hit economically and leadership of the world changed as well as people on the international level got impacted mentally, psychologically, and physically. But at last, it is important to note by the world and international leadership that why the terror still exist with so much strong presence in almost every corner of the world until the world and the powerful nation (America) is continuously putting efforts to eliminate terrorism.
Abu-Ras, Wahiba, and Soleman H. Abu-Bader. "Risk factors for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The case of Arab and Muslim Americans post-9/11." Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 7.4 (2009): 393-418.
Bonanno GA, Galea S, Bucciarelli A, et al. Psychological resilience after disaster: New York City in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attacks. Psychological Science 2006. 17; 181-186.
Carnagey, Nicholas L., and Craig A. Anderson. "Changes in attitudes towards war and violence after September 11, 2001." Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression 33.2 (2007): 118-129.
Ford, Carol A., et al. "Reactions of young adults to September 11, 2001." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157.6 (2003): 572-578.
Hall, Todd H., and Andrew AG Ross. "Affective politics after 9/11." International Organization 69.4 (2015): 847-879.
Hamilton, A. “9/11 10 years later. American Psychologist examines Americans' reactions over time to terrorist attacks” https://www.apa.org. N. p., 2019. Web. 8 Nov. 2019.
IRMI. “Terrorism’s Impact on International Relations | Expert Commentary | IRMI.Com." Irmi.com. N. p., 2019. Web. 9 Nov. 2019.
Kimberly Amadeo. "How The 9/11 Attacks Still Damage The Economy Today." The Balance. N. p., 2019. Web. 8 Nov. 2019.
Kramer R, Hayes MA, Nolan V, et al. Community needs assessment of lower Manhattan residents following the World Trade Center Attacks — Manhattan, New York City, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002. 51; 10-13.
Morgan, Matthew. The American military after 9/11: society, state, and empire. Springer, 2008.
NYC Health. "Physical and Mental Health - 9/11 Health." Www1.nyc.gov. N. p., 2019. Web. 9 Nov. 2019.
Ohlsson, A. “The Knowledge Synthesis Group of Determinants of Preterm/LBW births. Effects of the September 11, 2001 Disaster on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review” Acta Obstetricia ET Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2011; 90(1):6-18.
Sidhu, Dawinder S., and Neha Singh Gohil. Civil rights in wartime: The post-9/11 Sikh experience. Routledge, 2016.
Utley, Rachel E., ed. 9/11 ten years after: Perspectives and problems. Routledge, 2016.
Useful LinksFree Essays About Blog
If you have any queries please write to us
Join our mailing list
@ All Rights Reserved 2023 email@example.com