Foreign Policy in the 20th and 21st Centuries
The foreign policy of any country defines the way it acts towards and behaves with the other countries. Same is the case with the foreign policy of the United States of America. Foreign policy or the foreign policy documents hold great importance in the case of any country as they define the relationship of any country with any other specific country and most of the times, it plays a great role in creation or destruction of balance in the whole world. One unique aspect of the foreign policy of the United States is that it also sets out how the organization, corporations and even the individual citizens should behave towards the other countries.
John Quincy Adams: Diary Entries on the Monroe Doctrine 
Monroe Doctrine is one of the most elaborated and refined documents ever in the history of the United States of America. It is still considered the best known US policy towards the Western Hemisphere. The message was artistically concealed in a routine annual message, from the side of Congress to the President at that time, James Monroe, in December 1823. The document was, in fact, a warning to the European countries that the United States of America would no longer allow the practice of colonization or inference in the affairs of North or South America.
John Quincy Adam served at three seats or positions during his whole career. He served as a diplomat, a president and then a congressman. During the presidency period of James Monroe, he was the secretary of state and had a deep insight into the political and diplomatic relationships of the United States of America. He also took an active part in the formation of the Monroe Doctrine under the administration of President James Monroe. John Quincy Adams kept a diary in which he regularly recorded his personal views and opinions that what should be done in any specific scenario or not. These diary entries hold great importance in the political circles of the United States of America as diplomats, congressmen and politicians took his advice in this respect. John Quincy Adams recorded all the important events of that era in his diary and this document and are still considered one of the most important guiding light for American politics.
Rudyard Kipling: “The White Man's Burden” 
Famous novelist and poet, Rudyard Kipling, had a great insight into the tense political situations of the United States of America and the Philippines. He felt deeply pained over the condition of the people of the world fighting against each other. The real name of the poem, with which it was published as “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands.” In the poem, Kipling tried to awaken up the people of the United States and tell them about the sensitivity of the prevailing condition. The poem was first published in the February issues of the McClure’s Magazine in 1899. It was the time when the American-Philippine war had just started and the United States Senate had just ratified the Treaty of Paris. The treaty explained the regions of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guam and the Philippines should be governed by the United States of America.
The poem “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands.”, basically urges the people of the United States and the responsible people sitting in the senates and governmental positions to realize their responsibilities. The responsibility at which the celebrated novelist and poet are pointing out is one of making the whole world civilized. The poet is pointing towards the colonies of the United States, especially Philippines and telling the American citizens to impose their civilizations, which is better in many respects, on the black inhabitants of the colonies.
Ernest Crosby: “The Real White Man's Burden” 
As "The Real White Man's Burden" is a parody of Rudyard Kipling's "The White Man's Burden", it is evident that the poems are alike when the outer structure are compared. On the inside, the poem is an ironic interpretation of the 'white man's burdens' as a colonizing strength. Like Rudyard Kipling described how colonizers should act, Crosby did same in his poem. Ernest Howard Crosby wrote the ironic appeal to ‘the white man’- a representation of the Americans on how they take benefits of colonized peoples. Kipling’s poem was a plea to the during the Spanish-American War, the U.S. government should interfere in the Philippines and convert the islands to a U.S. colony.
One can easily recognize a speaker who speaks to the white man and also two collective characters which include the colonizers and the colonized. Here the image of colonizers is depicted through the lenses of the critical speaker. According to it, they are inclined to aggressiveness and deviant behaviors towards the colonized. Distinct from the colonizers, who are portrayed through the eye of the poet, the colonized societies are depicted from lenses of the white man. Subsequently, they have perceived such a way that they can believe their dominance is reasonable. “The Real White Man's Burden”, generates numerous imageries, however, he is seldom symbolic. The description is the outcome of the use of action verbs and certain labels.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 
Theodore Roosevelt, who served as the 26th president of the United States of America, was a true American and believed in the propagation of the American Dream. He was off the view that American civilization should prevail in the whole world and it is the responsibility of the American nationals and officials to make the whole world civilized. In Roosevelt’s opinion, it was very much necessary to bring the whole world under the flag of the United States and show them what is true civilization. In this respect, Roosevelt presented a written document on December 6, 1904, in front of the Congress of the United States as his annual message. This document was called “Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine”. It is also known as the extension of the Monroe Doctrine.
The document discusses many important national issues including from the conservation of the natural resources to the railroad regulation. There were also many paragraphs related to the foreign policy. Roosevelt especially focused on the relationships between the United States and its neighbors, especially Latin America. Theodore Roosevelt also mentioned the regions of Venezuela, Cuba. Panama and China in it. The sitting president stated that he the government of the United States has not only worked in the interest of the United States but in the interest of the whole humanity. The president stated that the United States had always strived to end “civic corruption, to brutal lawlessness and violent race prejudices”.
Calvin Coolidge: Inaugural Address 
Calvin Coolidge held the seat of the president of the United States of America from 1923 to 1929. He was also a politician and a lawyer and was ultimately selected as the 30th president of the United States of America in 1923.
The second inaugural ceremony of the selection of Calvin Coolidge as the President of the United States was held on Wednesday, March 4, 1925, at the eastern portico of the United States Capitol in Washington DC. President Coolidge, in his inaugural address, revealed many eye-opening facts regarding American politics and
Where this address revealed many facts to the nation, it was also full of hope and inspiration for people from all the walks of life, whether they were politicians, businessmen, students or anyone else. President Calvin Coolidge appreciated the efforts of the whole nation and honored the sacrifices of the people in addition to the officials and the government members of the government bodies. The president’s words showed that he is proud of the position on which the nation is standing currently; he felt pride in the decisions the nation had made and the unity people of the United States had shown in every difficult time. He expressed his faith in the American nation but also reminded that the nation should stick to these values to make the nation more progressive and take the country to heights of the progress and prosperity.
The Age of Terrorism: 9/11-present
The United States of America came under the worst form of terrorism in 2001, when it underwent 4 consecutive terrorist attacks on the same day. The attacks were a part of the planned effort form the side of Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda. Since then, US has been fighting a constant battle against terrorism. It has indulged in direct wars with two countries since then, Afghanistan and Iraq and indirect terrorist removal activities in Pakistan, Libya and Nigeria as well.
Benjamin R. Barber: “Jihad vs. McWorld” 
Benjamin Berber, a well-versed political scientist and author, was an expert in the current affairs and global politics. He had a keen eye in the affairs going on in the world and was continually monitoring how the situations were twisting and turning as the world was moving towards a new century. Barber contributed in many respects towards the improvement of the disturbed political situations in the world. He wrote numerous articles and books regarding the topics of world politics, democracy, terrorism and globalization. Among one of his finest works is his book, “Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism Are Reshaping the World”. Although the book was initially published in 1995, the basic theme or idea was taken from one of his articles previously written by him under the same title in 1992.
Both in his articles and the book, Jihad vs. McWorld, Barber discusses the idea of chauvinistic tribalism in the age of modern times. He has denoted this era or the modern world as the “McWorld”, as the big names or brands started investing their money in the farthest corners of the world, where they were once unknown and alien. These names include McDonald's, Apple, Starbucks, 7-Eleven, Nike, and Microsoft. The noted author is of the view that none of these expansions or globalization is democratic and the big nations, owning these corporates have entered the nations by force.
Osama bin Laden: Declaration of Jihad against Americans 
Osama Bin Laden, apparently a poor Afghani tribesman, made it very clear in his initial writings about his evil plans regarding the United States of America. It was evident from many of his writings that he wants to attack the United States of America and wage a clear war against it. His agenda became more clear when he issued a statement publicly in written and video format both that he is ready to declare war against the super-power. The document or declaration is officially known a “Declaration of Jihad against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holiest Sites”. This declaration was made on announced on August 23, 1996. Osama bin Laden signed this declaration from Afghanistan and
This declaration was made 5 years before the 9/11 terrorist attack on the twin towers of the United States of America. The two holy lands mentioned in this declaration are Mecca and Medina, the two holiest and respected cities in Islam. Bin Laden clearly mentioned in his declaration:
“All the false propaganda about the supposed rights of Islam was abandoned in the face of the attacks and massacres committed against Muslims everywhere, the latest and most serious of which--the greatest disaster to befall the Muslims since the death of the prophet Muhammad--is the occupation of Saudi Arabia, which is the cornerstone of the Islamic world, place of revelation, source of the Prophetic mission, and home of the Noble Ka'ba where Muslims direct their prayers. Despite this, it was occupied by the armies of the Christians, the Americans, and their allies.”
Bin Laden Determined to Strike in US 
The terrorist attacks on the twin towers on September 11, 2001, not only shook the entire American nation but affected the whole world very badly. Although the terrorist attacks were conducted on four main locations in the United States, the most affected were the twin towers in the city of New York. This tragic incident sent a wave of shock and rage all over the world and the people started demanding explanations for this catastrophe. The angry government authorities, congressmen and even the general public wanted to know the details of this event. They were concerned that whether the United States intelligence and president George W. Bush had seen the catastrophe coming or had the received any warnings regarding the incident. All of them had the same question in their minds. “How could such a big superpower not see or detect the planning of such a big disaster?”
It was later revealed that the intelligence agencies and even the President of the United States of America, George W. Bush had been warned about such a big fiasco coming, on August 6, 2001. It was a little earlier than one month of the incident. The US government accepted the responsibility for the negligence at their part and accepted that they should have shown a little more sense of urgency in this case.
George W. Bush: Address to the Nation on September 11, 2001 
The day the tragic incident of a terrorist attack on twin towers in United States took place, then president of the United States of America, Mr George W. Bush, broadcasted a statement or address on television and radio the same day. This address was no longer than five minutes in duration but was full of emotions and sadness. Where on one hand, the president condoled the sad hearts who had lost their loved ones in the incident, he also condemned the tragedy in strong words.
President George W. Bush commented that this attack was not only on some buildings or locations in the United States, but on the security, solidarity and peace-loving nature of the nation of United States, and such an act of terrorism will never be tolerated. The sitting president also did not forget to thank the members of Congress who participated in tandem to condemn the attacks on the security and solidarity if the United States of America. The president read a verse from Psalms, to show his solidarity and empathy with the grieving souls who had lost their loved ones or properties in this tragic incident. At the end of the speech, President George W. Bush demanded unity and patience from the people of the United States. He said that the whole nations should come together, at this hour of test for the restoration of peace and justice.
Bybee Torture Memo 
In the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States of America, intelligence agencies of the government of America started a life-long battle against terrorism and various terrorist groups acting in different parts of the world. The government of the United States of America pledged to take into account every single person or group who could be suspected to be involved in any act of terrorism and put them into prison. There were a number of prisons in and outside the United States that held captive such prisoners. However, news came rising up that the prisoners in all these prison facilities were being ill-treated. Various humanitarian agencies claimed that the prisoners kept in these prisoners were not treated properly and non-human treatment was being carried on with them.
As a response to this, the Bybee Torture Memo came into the light, which clearly stated the outline and procedures to be carried on with the prisoners, either inside or outside the United States of America. The basic purpose of this memo was to get the consent and views of the Office of the Legal Counsel of the United States regarding the practices being carried on by the US interrogators in the prisons of the United States. The Memo clearly showed that it had been written under the light of the “international Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment” which was designed by the United Nations.
Robert C. Byrd: "The Emperor Has No Clothes" Speech 
Robert C. Byrd, a famous and gifted politician from the United States of America, who served as the senator of West Virginia for more than 51 years. He became the senator of one of the biggest states of the United States of America in 1959 and held the seat till 2010, his death year. Senator Byrd was and is still famous for delivering epigrammatic and articulate speeches. His speeches were the practical demonstration of the oratorical skills of nineteenth-century elocution. His choice of words, the flowery rhetoric and grand gestures all went perfectly with the message of the speech and were usually aptly synchronized with it. In addition to this, his speeches contained poems, quotes, sayings by historical figures, verses from holy books, and references from various other previous speeches. He especially mentioned Roman statesman and public speaker, Cicero in his addresses.
One of the other patterns that were visibly noticeable in almost all his speeches was the use of various parables and classical fairy tales to clarify his point. He adopted the same pattern in one of his very famous and liked speeches; “The Emperor Has No Clothes”. This speech was delivered between October 2002 and April 2004. Senator Robert S, Byrd used the fable of Hans Christian Andersen that was written by him in 1837. The expert orator, in this speech, explained that the United States of America was not directly threatened by the existence of Iraq, and the war against terrorism in the region of Iraq was initiated on baseless reasons. The “emperor” mentioned in this speech was pointing towards President George W. Bush, who was the head of the country of the United States ate the time of US-Iraq war. Senator Robert C. Byrd clearly conveyed his concerns in the following words:
“The Emperor has no clothes. This entire adventure in Iraq has been based on propaganda and manipulation. Eighty-seven billion dollars is too much to pay for the continuation of a war based on falsehoods.”
The Cold War
Cold War is defined as a period of tense relationships between the United States of America (and its allies) and the Soviet Union (USSR and its allies). The Cold War period is considered the period between the termination of World War II and the fall of the Soviet Union. Both the fighting parties did not directly indulge in a war or fight but kept opposing each other in various political and matters of foreign affairs like proxy wars etc.
Winston Churchill: Iron Curtain Speech 
One of the most courageous leaders the world has seen was Winston Churchill. Winston Churchill was one of the smartest and most successful leaders, history has ever witnessed. Churchill became the prime minister of the United Kingdom twice during his life; once from 1940 to 1945 and second from 1951 to 1955. Winston Churchill is best known for his contributions and successful decision-making during the time of World War II. He intelligently led Great Britain during World War II. His smart and quick decision making proved to be very efficient during the tough times of the war and saved many lives.
Prime Minister Winston Churchill successfully delivered many speeches in which he conveyed his message of peace and justice to the whole world. One of his most famous speeches is this respect is the “Iron Curtain Speech”. Also known as “The Sinews of Peace”, this speech was delivered on March 5, 1946, at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri. It was delivered at a crucial hour when World War II had just ended and it was only 7 months since peace had been restored in the Pacific. This speech was full of hopes and the rising of a new era of peace and prosperity. Churchill, in his speech, mostly focused on the cultivation of positive relationships between Britain and the United States of America.
One of the most interesting things about this speech was its name “The Iron Curtain”. Many scholars, experts and even politicians were surprised at its name, that what kind of strange name this speech carried. In fact, the name was suggested by Prime Minister Churchill, himself. The reason behind this name was that the indulgence of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. Prime Minister Churchill pointed out that most of the internal and external affairs of Eastern Europe are being controlled by the Soviet Union. He pointed towards the fact that the Soviet Union had created a barrier between the United States and the European Union and it was so strong that no one can know about the affairs going on at the other side. This barrier was resembled him by a “curtain”.
Although many people, including experts, scholars, politicians and many heads of the states questioned his judgments regarding this speech but with the passage of time, it proved to be right.
Harry S. Truman: Truman Doctrine 
Truman Doctrine was a document issued by the 33rd president of the United States of America, Harry S. Truman. It was issued as an expansion to the foreign policy of the United States of America and presented a plan or announcement to stop and counter the Soviet Union or the forces of USSR. Harry S. Truman in this document to the Soviet Union and the whole world that no further geopolitical expansion of the former will be tolerated by the United States of America. Moreover, it also pledged to aid the nations that were directly or indirectly threatened by the Soviet communism.
The foreign policy document, Truman Doctrine, came at a very crucial time when at one side, there was Cold War going on between the United States of America and USSR, whereas on the other hand, Greece was handling the issues of civil war. Truman was afraid that if proper aid was not providing to countries like Greece and Turkey, they would fall tragically in the hands of the communist forces, which would bring “grave consequences”. President Truman warned the world that it would be a great loss for all the nations in the world. He pledged in this doctrine to provide complete political, economic and military assistance to the nations fighting against the cruel forces of external and internal authoritarian forces.
In fact, this statement, from the side of such an important historical figure, marked the initiation of the Cold War between the two superpowers of the world at that time and depicts Truman’s approach to handling the communist aggression during the Cold War Phase. Many people have an opinion that Truman Doctrine was heavily influenced by “The Long Telegram”, which was 5300-word long telegram sent to President Truman, by George Kennan, a diplomat appointed in Europe. Truman Doctrine later became the foundation of the foreign policy of the United States of America.
Dwight D. Eisenhower: Atoms for Peace Speech 
Dwight Eisenhower served as the 34th president of the United States of America from 1953 to 1961. Before becoming the president, he served in the US Army as a general. Also known as “Ike”, Eisenhower played a very crucial role during World War II as he was serving at a rank of five-star general in the US army as a Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force. He loved his country more than anything in this world. The United States of America was his first and most probably last love. He loved his country first and foremost, arguably a prerequisite of any officer seeking a lifelong military career. He even told his young wife, Mamie, that the United States of America always would come first, she would always be second.
Eisenhower assiduously prepared himself to become a first-rate officer at a time when many American officers struggled through their careers merely as time-servers, not all that surprising, considering that in the years leading up to WWI, the United States, while widely regarded as an economic behemoth, still generally functioned as a regional, backwater military power. Though a mediocre student at West Point, Eisenhower graduated first in his class at Command and General Staff College, even as some of this fellow officers suffered nervous breakdowns and washed out. He eventually secured a coveted place at the Army War College, which greatly enhanced his long-term career prospects. He also demonstrated a capacity for innovative thinking, even risking his career by collaborating with his then close friend, George S. Patton, to publish several articles about the implications of tank warfare, which many in the upper echelons of Army leadership regarded as threatening.
Eisenhower was one of several officers who figured prominently in Army Chief of Staff Gen. George C. Marshall's black book of promising military talent. During his brief tenure in the weeks after Pearl Harbor serving with the War Plans Division, Ike was instrumental in helping conceive of the ways in which scarce resources could be employed optimally across the globe. His previous experience serving as the de facto chief of staff under Douglas MacArthur in the Philippines proved invaluable in enabling Marshall and rest the Army high command to deal with the temperamental MacArthur as well as the parlous state of military affairs in the beleaguered archipelago.
It should be stressed that Eisenhower was no military grand strategist, a fact noted both by General Alan Brooke, chief of the Imperial General Staff, and General Montgomery, commander of the British Eight Army. Even so, he possessed several singular personal assets that assured the success of the inherently fractious British/American alliance. Many among the British high command still regarded the United States as an upstart power and its officers as mere provincials, equipped to do little more than command frontier outposts. This view was only reinforced following the disastrous American setback at Kasserine Pass in the early stages of the North Africa Campaign.
Dwight D. Eisenhower: Farewell Address 
Eisenhower, because of his temperament and advanced army education, was arguably among only a small handful of U.S. officers equipped to undertake what many around him regarded as a daunting, if not insurmountable task: to bridge the gap between two powers previously regarded as geopolitical rivals — Britain, which commanded the grandest empire in history, and the United States, a former British colony and economic superpower which threatened to supplant Britain after the war.
Eisenhower's role, serving as a kind of military diplomat/statesman in his capacity as Allied Supreme Commander in North Africa, Italy and northern Europe, was arguably an indispensable factor in the success of this fractious alliance. Ike was instrumental in sustaining history's most unique military alliance to the very end of the war. For that reason alone, Dwight David Eisenhower deserves the title of an American hero.
Ronald Reagan: "Evil Empire" Speech 
Ronald Wilson Reagan became the 40th president of the United States of America in 1981. He was considered one of the most influential voices of the modern conservatism and charming president of the history of the United States of America. Prior to becoming a President of the United States of America, he was union leader and a Hollywood actor. He also served as the Governor of one of the major states of the United States of America, California, from 1967 to 1975.
Ronald Reagan during his presidential period openly opposed the Soviet Union and spoke against them in many instances. One of the prominent examples of such an incident was his “Evil Empire” speech, that was delivered by him to the National Association of Evangelicals in 1983. It was a time when the Cold War was at its peak and direct war with the USSR and its allies could start at any time. USSR for Reagan was like Jews for Goebbels in Third Reich, he emphasized his enemy’s bad sides and attributed to the bad events of the past that are no longer the case (like Stalin’s purges, NKVD, the cult of personality). He also attributed to them his own misdoings, for example, separating Germany that Stalin tried to unite. Moreover, Reagan completely ignored any of their achievements that were much better than the achievements of the American nation and claimed that they mistreated American people.
Anti-Semitism from Biblical Times to the Present
Anti-Semitism is defined as discrimination or hostility towards Jews as a religious or racial group. The term was first coined by the German agitator Wilhelm Marr in 1879 in order to designate a specific name to the anti-Jewish campaigns underway in central Europe at that time. Anti-Semitism did not only erupt in the nineteenth century in the world, but it is also still carried on. In fact, the number of violence and discrimination as a result of Anti-Semitism have increased over a period of time.
Nuremberg Laws 
The Nuremberg Laws were devised to provide and protect the rights of the civilians during crucial times, especially wars. The Nuremberg tribunals (trials after the big international military tribunal) made it clear that powerful people are bound by the law, that if they ordered or were complicit in crimes they might have to pay and that “I was just following orders” wasn’t a defence. Due to Nuremberg, every soldier in every army knows he doesn’t have to obey illegal orders and that he could go to prison if he does.
A half-century later, the two ad hoc UN tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, in which many defence lawyers participated as well, built on the foundation from Nuremberg. Basically, the war crimes prosecutions are meant to bring some sort of humanity into what is an inhumane process, war. The armed forces can’t target civilians, they are bound not to rape and murder the helpless in their control. They have the orders to treat prisoners humanely. Commanders have a duty to prevent their subordinates from committing crimes. Same were the rules prescribed in the Nuremberg Laws, which were very simple.
Theodor Herzl: “A Solution to the Jewish Question” 
Theodore Herzl, a well-known writer, playwright, political activist and journalist, wrote an essay in the London Weekly Newspaper, Jewish Chronicles, by the name of “A Solution to the Jewish Question”, in 1896, that highlighted the issues being faced by the Jews all over the world. According to him the Jews, no matter in what part of the world they were living, were facing a crisis from the very beginning of the times. In Herzl’s opinion, the only solution to this issue or problem was that Jews should have their separate homeland, where they can practice their religion with peace. He wanted that there should be a place, all the Jews of the world should live with unity and harmony. Theodor Herzl suggested that no other place or region was better for this kind of practice than Palestine. Israel had not been discovered at that time, when Herzl was writing this essay and the Jews were living in the Ottoman Empire, sharing the land and the resources with the Muslims and Christians. Although Herzl was not the only one suggesting this, this essay or article proved to be one of the major milestones in providing a solution to the problems of the Jews all over the world.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
Every person is entitled to have some basic human rights; these rights have been clearly written and accepted by the whole world. There is a whole body that ensures the protection and promotion of these human rights, by the name of the United Nations Human Rights Organization. However, before 1948, these rights were neither clearly written down anywhere nor there was a unanimous agreement upon a large number of people or heads of states for the acceptance and promotion of these rights. On December 10, 1948, there was a declaration presented in the General Assembly of the United Nations. This document was named as “Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)” and was crafted by a separate Commission on Human Rights, the chairperson of which was Eleanor Roosevelt, the widow of former President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt. This declaration announced the basic rights that every person has and should be handed over to each and every human without any question of religion, faith, race, color, caste or nationality These rights included the right to health, right top breath, right to live safely and securely, right to rest and leisure, right to equal pay etc. All the members of the United Nations unanimously pledged to follow, protect and promote these human rights.
BIBLIOGRAPHY "HS-122 World Perspectives in History." n.d. Website. 05 12 2019. <https://www.milestonedocuments.com/courses/sort/18903>.
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