History Exam Essay
History exam essay
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History exam essay
The critical issues faced under the presidency of John F. Kenndey was an intensification of civil rights movements of the 1960s because as a candidate he promised a vigorous action. After the death of Kennedy president, Johnson made three legislative actions and signed them into laws. The civil rights activist became increasingly sceptical of integration and non-violence and turned to self-determination of black power and racial nationalism. When the civil rights movement started the organisation which work for African Americans known as CORE alerted justice department and FBI for their freedom rides, but they received no protection from the state.
Another protest of students from Nonviolent coordinating committee was FORCED by CORE to continues the bus rides. But when the bus reached to Montgomery, it was brutally assaulted by a mob on May 20 1961. After the death of John F Kennedy president Johnson passed the civil right act of 1964. This law increased the rights to vote and federal enforcement of school desegregation and created a federal agency to resolve racial conflicts.
After 1964 SNCC and CORE began to adopt new strategies of black self-defence and self-determination for seeking freedom and it was based on militant ideology. The black power movement started under Malcolm who was a black Muslim activist who was engaged in the life of crime and started a movement for black people when he came out of jail. Militants influenced the ideas of Malcolm X were challenging racial liberalism (Hewitt & Lawson 2014). The nation of Islam forced these black people to disengage from the political happening at large and take charge of their institutions. The renounced the principles of non-violence and integration for black people and believed that these people should gain independence from white people. In the year 1966 SNCC had only black people in their organisation because they expelled all the white people. The chairman of SNCC considered the black power movement for the freedom of African Americans to resolve the conflicts of black people in Vietnam, Africa and Cuba.
Civil rights activist offered a model for addressing a variety of problems including the loss of individual autonomy, nuclear devastation, racism, poverty, sexism and environmental degradation. Possibilities of social and personal transformation were increased due to the formation of SNCC. When President Johnson addressed in University of Michigan in the year 1964, he talked about his dream of Great society in which every individual have freedom. According to Johson, the "Great Society" would be the one in which have racial justice and end to poverty. While focusing on the movements on a national level the SNCC, SCLC and CORE launched a freedom summer project in Mississippi to assign hundreds of students from white colleges to improve the education of black people and register them for votings. As a result, the Mississippi Freedom democratic society was made which was open to all the black and white people. A new group emerged to for the movement of black people in 1966 when students named Newton and Bobby from California and Oakland formed a black panthers party. They established day facilities, and health centres often run by women and were admired by many people in the United States. Many protestors centralised the idea of these movements. When the University of berkely banned political activities, CORE defied its prohibition but it. As a result, their leader got arrest which also increased the number of activists.
The main difference between the two movements was that the supporters of the black power movement were ready to use violence, but both of these movements started to bring racial equality within society. Both movements were started to solve the problem of racial inequality, but civil rights movement activists proposed a non-violent approach of protests. Black power movement was organised under Malcolm x who viewed independence from the white people as the necessary condition for solving racial inequality. The presidencies of Lyndon Johnson and John Kennedy had high cold war military interventions and liberal reforms in united states. Liberalism permitted greater freedom for ethnic, racial and sexual minorities by expanding educational opportunities, cleaning up the environment and extending health care facilities.
Hewitt, N., & Lawson, S. (2014). Exploring American histories. Bedford/St. Martin's.
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