The articles of confederation were the initial official document that established the function of a national government in the United States. It helped in the creation of a central government but failed to give significant power to it. The central government prevented its states from creating their own foreign diplomatic structure. Before independence, different colonies were concerned that a central government would mean less power and that feeling also continued after the independence as well. After the formation of the government through Article of confederation, the delegates agreed on state voting but left the issue of individual stats’ claim to the western lands. Another issue which aroused in 1778, when the states of Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey refused to accept the “Articles of confederation”. The article restricted the rights of individual states to create diplomacy and foreign policy. One of the main failures of the Articles of confederation was its lack of structure to unify all the thirteen colonies together. One other major issue was the control over taxes and tariffs. The present form of the United States government is known as second form of the government under the constitution. To correct the weaknesses of the current government under the constitutions, it created the second government of the United States. The new state had full control over taxes, borrowing of money, setting of duties, imports, exports, exercises. The shift of power was mainly observed through:
Separate legislative, executive and judiciary branch
The courts were empowered to interpret fundamental and statute law
Act of federal government on people rather than state government
The new government also faced several problems and challenges after its formation. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, which were carried out by their respective legislature took their stance against Alien and sedition acts. These resolutions argued that any state can declare an act unconstitutional which is not clearly defined or authorized by the federal constitution.
The Hartford Convention was another issue that the federal government faced after its formation. Federalist Party of New England met in Hartford Connecticut. They raised certain issues regarding the ongoing war of 1812 and the excessive power abuse by the federal government. They also raised points on the issues of trade laws and the three-fifth compromise of slaves.
The Nullification crises also aroused from the United States political situations of 1832-33. The conflict between the federal government and South Carolina occurred during the tenure of Andrew Jackson. This situation further escalated when legislation of South Carolina declared the federal tariffs laws unconstitutional and determined it null and void within the jurisdiction of the state laws.
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